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Blender 3D Basics

Book Description

This book will have you diving into the great features of Blender in no time. Written for absolute beginners, it takes you step-by-step through the process of creating a fully animated 3D scene. Once completed, you’ll never look back.

  • The best starter guide for complete newcomers to 3D modeling and animation
  • Easier learning curve than any other book on Blender
  • You will learn all the important foundation skills ready to apply to any 3D software

In Detail

Blender is by far the most popular open source graphics program available. It is a full featured 3D modeling, animation and games development tool used by millions all over the world – and it’s free! This book is for those looking for an entry into the world of 3D modeling and animation regardless of prior experience.

Blender 3D Basics is the entry level book for those without prior experience using 3D tools. It caters for those who may have downloaded Blender in the past but were frustrated by its lack of intuitiveness. Using simple steps it builds, chapter by chapter, into a full foundation in 3D modeling and animation.

Using Blender 3D Basics the reader will model a maritime scene complete with boats and water, then add materials, lighting and animation. The book demystifies the Blender interface and explains what each tool does so that you will be left with a thorough understanding of 3D.

Table of Contents

  1. Blender 3D Basics Beginner's Guide
    1. Table of Contents
    2. Blender 3D Basics Beginner's Guide
    3. Credits
    4. About the Author
    5. About the Reviewers
    6. www.PacktPub.com
      1. Support files, eBooks, discount offers and more
        1. Why subscribe?
        2. Free access for Packt account holders
    7. Preface
      1. What this book covers
      2. What you need for this book
      3. Who this book is for
      4. Conventions
      5. Time for action — heading
        1. What just happened?
        2. Pop quiz— heading
        3. Have a go hero — heading
      6. Reader feedback
      7. Customer support
        1. Downloading the example code
        2. Errata
        3. Piracy
        4. Questions
    8. 1. Introducing Blender and Animation
      1. Welcome to the world of Blender 3D
      2. Discovering Blender and animation
        1. Learning Blender will literally change how you think
        2. Installing Blender
        3. Using Blender
      3. Time for action — rendering your first scene in Blender
        1. What just happened?
      4. Time for action — closing Blender
        1. What just happened?
      5. Top 10 reasons to enjoy using Blender 3D
      6. Learning from your animation heros
        1. Have a go hero — making a folder of your animation heroes
        2. Going back to the year 1922 on an animation field trip
      7. Time for action — searching on Felix Turns the Tide + 1922
        1. What just happened?
        2. Pop quiz— analyzing pioneer animators
        3. Moving ahead a few years in time, to 1928
      8. Time for action — searching on Plane Crazy +1928
        1. What just happened?
        2. Pop quiz— analyzing early animators
        3. Arriving in 1938, the animation industry is at a peak
      9. Time for action — searching on Goonland + 1938
        1. Pop quiz— analyzing what animators had learned in 16 years
        2. Have a go hero — studying the masters
      10. Starting to use computers for animation in the 1960s
        1. Beginnings of 3D animation in 1963
      11. Time for action — searching on Ivan Sutherland + Sketchpad
        1. What just happened?
        2. Pop quiz— analyzing pioneer computer animators
        3. Going to the late 1970s, a few companies are doing 3D animation
      12. Time for action — searching on Triple I demo
        1. What just happened?
        2. Pop quiz— analyzing early computer animators
      13. Time for action — watching Information International,Inc. (Triple I) 1982 demo reel
        1. What just happened?
        2. Introducing Pixar — 1984, and everything comes together
      14. Time for action — searching for the video of The Adventures of André and Wally B
        1. What just happened?
        2. Pop quiz— analyzing mature computer animation
        3. Have a go hero — educating yourself about animation
        4. Back to the present time
      15. Animation principles
      16. Using 3D skills, what can you do with them?
        1. Making 2D animation
        2. TV and video
        3. Films and pre-visualization
        4. Stereoscopic 3D
        5. Web animation
        6. Games
        7. Flight and driving simulators
        8. Digital signage
        9. Displaying scientific data
        10. Legal evidence display
        11. Architectural walkthroughs
        12. Virtual reality
        13. Virtual sets
        14. Interactive instruction
        15. Showing what can't otherwise be seen
        16. Creating a portfolio to get a job
        17. Product development and visualization
      17. Summary
    9. 2. Getting Comfortable using the 3D View
      1. Exploring the Blender 3D interface
        1. Setting up Blender the way you want it
        2. Using the three basic Blender controllers
          1. Using the numeric keypad with Blender
          2. Emulating the three-button mouse and Numpad
        3. Understanding how to use Blender Windows
      2. Time for action — playing with the Blender windows
        1. What just happened?
      3. Time for action — resizing windows
        1. What just happened?
      4. Time for action — flipping the window header
        1. What just happened?
      5. Time for action — maximizing and tiling the window
        1. What just happened?
      6. Time for action — splitting Blender windows
        1. What just happened?
      7. Time for action — joining Blender windows
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — joining windows horizontally
        3. Have a go hero — making windows with parallel edges
        4. Pop quiz— learning about Blender windows
        5. Have a go hero — making and removing windows, the secret way
      8. Exploring the 3D View window, the heart of Blender
      9. Time for action — discovering your tools
        1. What just happened?
        2. Looking at the 3D View window, what do you see?
        3. Making pictures with computers
          1. Making colors with a computer
          2. Making millions of colors with just red, green, and blue
        4. Measuring things in 3D
        5. Pop quiz— learning basic computer graphics terms
        6. Navigating in the 3D View
      10. Time for action — rotating the scene in 3D View
        1. What just happened?
      11. Time for action — zooming the scene in 3D View
        1. What just happened?
      12. Time for action — panning the scene in 3D View
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — navigating the scene in the 3D View
        3. Have a go hero — navigating for those who have a mouse wheel
          1. Using the Numpad to change the angle in the 3D View
      13. Time for action — seeing the top view, front view, and right side view
        1. What just happened?
      14. Time for action — seeing the bottom view, rear view, and left side view
        1. What just happened?
      15. Time for action — seeing what the camera sees
        1. What just happened?
      16. Time for action — verifying the Camera View
        1. What just happened?
      17. Time for action — rotating the view with the Numpad
        1. What just happened?
      18. Time for action — rotating the view in another direction with the Numpad
        1. What just happened?
      19. Time for action — zooming with the Numpad
        1. What just happened?
      20. Time for action — making the camera see what you do
        1. What just happened?
        2. Pop quiz— knowing how to get different views
          1. Understanding Perspective and Orthographic views
      21. Time for action — toggling between Perspective and Orthographic views
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — playing with Perspective and Orthographic views
          1. Displaying the Quad View and Full Screen
      22. Time for action — toggling the Quad view
        1. What just happened?
          1. Navigating in the 3D View
      23. Summary
    10. 3. Controlling the Lamp, the Camera, and Animating Objects
      1. Understanding lamps
      2. Time for action — moving the lamp
        1. What just happened?
      3. Time for action — moving the lamp close to the cube
        1. What just happened?
      4. Time for action — moving the lamp far away
        1. What just happened?
      5. Time for action — seeing how the lighting looks without rendering
        1. What just happened?
        2. Adding color to the lamp using the Properties window
      6. Time for action — adding color to the lamp
        1. What just happened?
        2. Using multiple lamps for better lighting
      7. Time for action — adding a second lamp
        1. What just happened?
        2. Light color mixing
        3. Have a go hero — experimenting with multiple lamps
      8. Saving your work
      9. Time for action — saving a file
        1. What just happened?
        2. Always have a backup file
      10. Controlling the camera
      11. Time for action — using the global axis and local axis
        1. What just happened?
      12. Time for action — moving an object in one plane in global mode
        1. What just happened?
      13. Time for action — moving an object in one plane in the local mode
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — controlling location with numbers
        3. Seeing through the lens
      14. Time for action — setting up Blender so you can see what the camera sees
        1. What just happened?
        2. Using the camera as a canvas
          1. Understanding the rules of composition
            1. Applying the rule of thirds for well balanced scenes
            2. Using positive and negative space to put the focus on the action
            3. Using a limited palette for better results
        3. Pop quiz— composing your scenes
          1. Employing Blender's camera composition guides to make your work look better
        4. Have a go hero — investigating the camera composition guides
          1. Understanding the fundamental camera moves
          2. Rotating and scaling the camera and other objects
        5. Have a go hero — rotating and scaling objects
      15. Making an animation
      16. Time for action — loading a file
        1. What just happened?
      17. Time for action — making a simple animation with keyframes
        1. What just happened?
        2. Getting a video player so you can play your animation
      18. Time for action — downloading the Blender video player
        1. What just happened?
      19. Time for action — installing a video player for Blender
        1. What just happened?
        2. Rendering your animation
      20. Time for action — rendering the animation
        1. What just happened?
        2. Controlling motion in the Graph Editor
      21. Time for action — exploring the Graph Editor
        1. What just happened?
          1. Introducing the F-Curve
          2. Modifying motion with the Bézier curve controls
      22. Time for action — working with a Bézier curve
        1. What just happened?
      23. Time for action — adding squash and stretch to the animation
        1. What just happened?
          1. Doing more with the Bézier curve handles
      24. Time for action — refining the use of the Bézier curve handles
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — experimenting with control handles to adjust motion
          1. Selecting which channel to work on
      25. Time for action — adding keyframes in the Graph Editor
        1. What just happened?
      26. Time for action — controlling the F-Curves with the Channel Selection Panel
        1. What just happened?
      27. Time for action — controlling channel display with the header
        1. What just happened?
          1. Copying, pasting, and deleting keyframes
      28. Time for action — copying and pasting keyframes
        1. What just happened?
          1. Keyframes for properties
      29. Time for action — keyframes for lights
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — adding more keyframes
      30. Summary
    11. 4. Modeling with Vertices, Edges, and Faces
      1. Using Object Mode and Edit Mode
      2. Time for action — going into Edit Mode
        1. What just happened?
      3. Investigating vertices, edges, and faces
      4. Time for action — choosing the best display mode
        1. What just happened?
      5. Time for action — working with vertices, edges, or faces
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — rotating and scaling edges and faces
        3. Selecting multiple vertices, edges, and faces
      6. Time for action — pressing A to select all
        1. What just happened?
      7. Time for action — pressing B for border selection
        1. What just happened?
      8. Time for action — pressing C for circle selection
        1. What just happened?
      9. Time for action — pressing Ctrl+LMB for lasso selection
        1. What just happened?
        2. Pop quiz— making selections
      10. Creating Blender's basic objects
      11. Time for action — making a basic object
        1. What just happened?
      12. Understanding what lies behind vertices, edges, and faces
      13. Building vertices, edges, and faces from scratch
      14. Time for action — making faces out of vertices and edges
        1. What just happened?
      15. Time for action — making a face from an edge
        1. What just happened?
      16. Summary
    12. 5. Building a Simple Boat
      1. Turning a cube into a boat with box modeling
        1. Using extrusion, the most powerful tool in box modeling
      2. Time for action — extruding to make the inside of the hull
        1. What just happened?
          1. Using normals in 3D modeling
      3. Time for action — displaying normals
        1. What just happened?
        2. Planning what you are going to make
          1. Choosing which units to model in
      4. Time for action — making reference objects
        1. What just happened?
        2. Sizing the boat to the reference blocks
      5. Time for action — making the boat the proper length
        1. What just happened?
      6. Time for action — making the boat the proper width and height
        1. What just happened?
        2. Pop quiz— figuring out the best way to build the boat
      7. Time for action — adding curves to the boat's lines by subdividing
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — adding a curve to the profile of the hull
        3. Have a go hero — adding a V-shape to the hull
          1. Using clean building methods
            1. Choosing between quadrilaterals and triangles
        4. Have a go hero — making a non-planar polygon
      8. Time for action — adding a seat to the boat
        1. What just happened?
      9. Time for action — making the other seat
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — add a third seat
      10. Making modeling easier with Blender's layers function
      11. Time for action — introducing layers
        1. What just happened?
      12. Time for action — using layers for controlling rendering
        1. What just happened?
      13. Coloring the boat to add realism
      14. Time for action — coloring the hull and the gunwale
        1. What just happened?
      15. Time for action — adding a texture to the seats
        1. What just happened?
      16. Time for action — naming objects and joining them
        1. What just happened?
      17. Using Basic Lighting
      18. Summary
    13. 6. Making and Moving the Oars
      1. Modeling an oar
        1. Getting scale from an image
        2. Making a cylinder into an oar
      2. Time for action — making the shaft of the oar
        1. What just happened?
      3. Time for action — making the grip and guard
        1. What just happened?
      4. Time for action — making the base of the blade of the oar
        1. What just happened?
      5. Time for action — making the blade
        1. What just happened?
        2. Controlling how smooth the surface is
      6. Time for action — controlling flat and smooth surfaces
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — tidying up details
      7. Making the oarlock
      8. Time for action — making the oarlock
        1. What just happened?
      9. Assembling the boat, oars, and oarlocks
      10. Time for action — loading all of the models together
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — adding some blocks to put the oarlock in
      11. Animating the boat
      12. Time for action — timing a stroke
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — figure out how long it takes you to row the boat
        3. Pop quiz— calculating how long a frame lasts
        4. Parenting and kinematics
      13. Time for action — animating the oarlock and oar
        1. What just happened?
        2. Animation cycles
      14. Time for action — copying keyframes to make a rowing cycle
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — adding more cycles
        3. Moving the boat
      15. Time for action — moving the boat in sync with the oars
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — rowing your boat
      16. Tracking the boat with the camera
      17. Time for action — tracking the boat
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — tracking with a light
      18. Making Stereoscopic 3D Animation
      19. Summary
    14. 7. Planning your Work, Working your Plan
      1. Using templates for modeling
        1. Have a go hero — inspecting the templates
      2. Time for action — adding a template
        1. What just happened?
      3. Time for action — scaling and aligning the template
        1. What just happened?
      4. Time for action — building the mast
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — making the boom, the gaff, and the bowsprit
      5. Modeling with Bezier Curves
        1. Making an object with a single Bezier Curve
      6. Time for action — making the rudder with a Bezier Curve
        1. What just happened?
        2. Using multiple Bezier Curves to make an object
      7. Time for action — making the path and the cross-section for the tiller
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — making the keel
      8. Keeping everything organized
        1. Pop quiz— organizing Blender files
        2. Making an index of your files
        3. Saving your Blender files
        4. Pop quiz— saving Blender files
      9. Planning your animation
        1. Discovering the story you want to tell with your animation
        2. Bringing your story to life with storyboards
          1. Making a storyboard
        3. Have a go hero — making your own storyboard
      10. Using animatics to plan the timing of your animation
      11. Using charts and guides to help you plan your animation
        1. Staying in TV limits with Safe Title-Action zones and Lower Thirds
      12. Time for action — adding a Safe Title/Safe Action guide to Blender
        1. What just happened?
        2. Transitioning from Standard Definition TV to High Definition TV
        3. Laying out your motion with Timing
          1. Planning what work must be done to make an animation
      13. Guiding animation production with an audio track
      14. Time for action — adding an audio track to Blender
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — animating to a boogie woogie beat
      15. Summary
    15. 8. Making the Sloop
      1. Modeling with Subdivision Surfaces
      2. Time for action — making a simple Subdivision Surface
        1. What just happened?
        2. Using Edge Tools to make modeling easier
      3. Time for action — turning a Reference Block into a sloop
        1. What just happened?
      4. Time for action — making selection easy with edge loops and edge rings
        1. What just happened?
      5. Time for action — creating the shape of the sloop from the top
        1. What just happened?
      6. Time for action — giving the hull a hull shape
        1. What just happened?
        2. Pop quiz— remembering Edge Tool commands
      7. Time for action — flattening the transom
        1. What just happened?
      8. Time for action — making the bow sharper
        1. What just happened?
      9. Time for action — finishing the hull
        1. What just happened?
        2. Getting the most for your rendering time with Levels of Detail
      10. Time for action — making the boat simpler
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — adjusting the rear of the cockpit
      11. Modeling the hull as a mesh
      12. Time for action — converting the surface to a mesh
        1. What just happened?
      13. Time for action — making the cockpit
        1. What just happened?
      14. Time for action — making the cabin
        1. What just happened?
      15. Using Boolean modifiers to cut holes in objects
      16. Time for action — detailing the cabin using the Boolean modifier
        1. What just happened?
      17. Time for action — applying the Boolean modifier
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — making doors and portal windows
      18. Adding materials and textures to the sloop
      19. Time for action — coloring and texturing the sloop hull
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — creating vertex groups for the cabin
      20. Time for action — using the same materials for two objects
        1. What just happened?
      21. Making the ship's wheel with the Spin tool and DupliVerts
      22. Time for action — using the Spin tool to make the rim of the ship's wheel
        1. What just happened?
      23. Time for action — making the hub
        1. What just happened?
      24. Time for action — making the circle
        1. What just happened
      25. Time for action — making the spoke
        1. What just happened?
      26. Time for action — assembling the ship's wheel
        1. What just happened?
      27. Summary
    16. 9. Finishing your Sloop
      1. Making sure you have the files you'll need in this chapter
      2. Finishing the sloop
      3. Time for action — setting up the boom and gaff so they swing
        1. What just happened?
      4. Time for action — adding the rudder, tiller, and keel
        1. What just happened?
      5. Time for action — adding the ship's wheel
        1. What just happened?
      6. Time for action — adding the boat name
        1. What just happened?
      7. Time for action — using a NURBS surface to make the mainsail
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — making the jib
      8. Detailing the sloop, adding a door and portals
      9. Time for action — adding a line to control the mainsail
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — adding the door and a portal
      10. Time for action — adding the portals
        1. What just happened?
      11. Summary
    17. 10. Modeling Organic Forms, Sea, and Terrain
      1. Getting ready to make the island
      2. Creating the ocean
      3. Time for action — making a surface for the water
        1. What just happened?
      4. Making an island
        1. Using the ANT Landscape add-on
      5. Time for action — using ANT Landscape to make the island
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — playing with ANT Landscape
        3. Detailing the island
      6. Time for action — understanding the proportional editing control
        1. What just happened?
      7. Time for action — using proportional editing to create the port
        1. What just happened?
      8. Time for action — building the breakwater
        1. What just happened?
      9. Time for action — adding contours to the back side of the island
        1. What just happened?
        2. Painting the island
      10. Time for action — painting the island
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — painting your island
      11. Making the island ready for habitation
        1. Building the pier with just four objects
      12. Time for action — creating the pier frame rails with Bezier Curves
        1. What just happened?
      13. Time for action — adding planks to the pier with DupliFrames
        1. What just happened?
      14. Time for action — using arrays to create the pilings for the pier
        1. What just happened?
        2. Appending the boathouse
      15. Time for action — appending the boathouse and building pilings for it
        1. What just happened?
        2. Building modular houses
        3. Have a go hero — assembling a house from a kit
        4. Creating trees with the Sapling add-on
      16. Time for action — adding trees to the landscape
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — making your own trees
        3. Making rocks
        4. Have a go hero — making rocks with subdivision surfaces
        5. Assembling your world
        6. Have a go hero — putting your world together
      17. Time for action — using groups to organize your scene
        1. What just happened?
        2. Pop quiz— optimizing rendering times
      18. Summary
    18. 11. Improving your Lighting and Camera Work
      1. Getting ready to do lighting and camera work
      2. Using lighting
        1. Pop quiz— remembering about lighting
        2. Lighting with three lights
      3. Time for action — introducing the three point lighting system
        1. What just happened?
      4. Time for action — lighting with only the key light
        1. What just happened?
      5. Time for action — lighting with only the fill light
        1. What just happened?
      6. Time for action — lighting with only the back light
        1. What just happened?
      7. Time for action — using color to separate what you see
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — changing lighting intensity
      8. Time for action — using cookies
        1. What just happened?
      9. Time for action — preparing to adjust falloff
        1. What just happened?
      10. Time for action — adjusting the falloff
        1. What just happened?
      11. Time for action — using the Custom Curve to tailor light
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — using three point lighting
      12. Using the camera to best effect
        1. Changing the field of view
      13. Time for action — zooming the camera versus dollying the camera
        1. What just happened?
        2. Using perspective
        3. Using depth of field
      14. Time for action — creating depth of field
        1. What just happened?
        2. Getting variety in your camera work
          1. Comparing long and medium shots
          2. Using close-up and two shots
          3. Applying the rule of 180
        3. Using motion blur
        4. Have a go hero — using motion blur
      15. Planning your animation and making sure it comes out right
        1. Storyboarding your ideas
        2. Have a go hero — making your storyboard
        3. Laying out your animation
        4. Have a go hero — laying out the rough animation
        5. Proofing your work
          1. Doing a preview
          2. Using hardware rendering to see the motion
        6. Have a go hero — doing a hardware render
          1. Inspecting details by rendering only part of the frame
        7. Have a go hero — rendering only part of the frame
          1. Glimpsing what the animation will look like with the quick render
      16. Time for action — reducing render times
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — testing the effect of changing the number of tiles on Rendering speed
        3. Have a go hero — proofing the animation
        4. Making corrections
      17. Time for action — using the Dope Sheet
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — making corrections
      18. Summary
    19. 12. Rendering and Compositing
      1. Preparing for Chapter 12
      2. Editing with the Video Sequence Editor
      3. Time for action — dissolving with the Video Sequence Editor
        1. What just happened?
      4. Time for action — editing individual video strips
        1. What just happened?
      5. Time for action — using K and Shift+K to make your trims
        1. What just happened?
      6. Making stereographic 3D with the Node Editor
      7. Time for action — creating the red image for the left eye
        1. What just happened?
      8. Time for action — making the right-eye view
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — making a cross-eye stereo image
      9. Rendering your animations
        1. Making your computer ready to render
        2. Making rendering more beautiful
          1. Using Anti-Aliasing for more beautiful renderings
      10. Time for action — displaying aliasing
        1. What just happened?
          1. Getting realism with subsurface scattering
          2. Putting a sparkle on your animations with ray tracing
      11. Time for action — seeing ray tracing
        1. What just happened?
          1. Choosing the proper number of tiles
          2. Using alpha channels
      12. Time for action — exploring the alpha channel
        1. What just happened?
      13. Time for action — using transparency in the Video Sequence Editor
        1. What just happened?
          1. Choosing the dimensions for your animation
      14. Time for action — selecting render presets
        1. What just happened?
      15. Time for action — seeing what fields look like
        1. What just happened?
        2. Pop quiz— rendering with fields
          1. Choosing what gets rendered
          2. Selecting the best file format
      16. Rendering with the Cycles renderer
      17. Time for action — simulating the glow of a kiln
        1. What just happened?
        2. Have a go hero — adjusting render quality in Cycles
      18. Summary
    20. A. Pop quiz Answers
      1. Chapter 2, Getting Comfortable using the 3D View
        1. Pop quiz— learning about Blender windows
        2. Pop quiz— learning basic computer graphics terms
        3. Pop quiz— knowing how to get different views
      2. Chapter 3, Controlling the Lamp, the Camera, and Animating Objects
        1. Pop quiz— composing your scenes
      3. Chapter 4, Modeling with Vertices, Edges, and Faces
        1. Pop quiz— making selections
      4. Chapter 5, Building a Simple Boat
        1. Pop quiz— figuring out the best way to build the boat
      5. Chapter 6, Making and Moving the Oars
        1. Pop quiz— calculating how long a frame lasts
      6. Chapter 7, Planning your Work, Working your Plan
        1. Pop quiz— organizing Blender files
        2. Pop quiz— saving Blender files
      7. Chapter 8, Making the Sloop
        1. Pop quiz— remembering Edge Tool commands
      8. Chapter 10, Modeling Organic Forms, Sea, and Terrain
        1. Pop quiz— optimizing rendering times
      9. Chapter 11, Improving your Lighting and Camera Work
        1. Pop quiz— remembering about lighting
      10. Chapter 12, Rendering and Compositing
        1. Pop quiz— rendering with fields
    21. Index