Chapter 3

Literature Review on Born Global Firms

One of the distinguishing characteristics of born globals is the early age at which they venture abroad. In contrast to the pattern of companies that never internationalize, or those that operate domestically for many years and then gradually expand abroad, management at born globals typically has a “borderless” view of the world, from or near the founding of the firm. In this chapter, we review key explanations on born global firms from scholarly journals and books. Exhibit 3.1 summarizes the major themes in the extant academic literature and articles in this literature that represent these themes.

In the 1980s, scholars began to notice the tendency of some companies to undertake early internationalization. ...

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