TO FUND THE TWIN STUDY, Bouchard had continued to receive grants from his own university; from an original backer, the Spencer Foundation; and from the National Science Foundation. These sources were limited, however, and his need for money was always pressing. Bringing twins to Minneapolis from different parts of the world and housing them for a week cost more than feeding colonies of fruit flies.

An early source of support was the Pioneer Foundation, a New York-based charitable trust established in 1937 by a textile millionaire, Wickcliffe Draper, to fund research that would “improve the character of the American people.” A strong obstacle to this goal, in Draper's view, was mixing the races, and this unsavory ...

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