6. Evolutions in Last-Mile Broadband Access

Not surprisingly, copper phone networks that were originally designed for voice calls have proven to be a valuable way to shift other types of information to and from households. From the first residential modem, which used an audio coupler between a computer and telephone, to high-speed VDSL2 technology, the traditional copper local loop continues to be a viable option to deliver faster data rates, for both high-speed Internet access and richer multimedia services. This type of access supports incumbent operators with a vast copper distribution network as well as retail operators that want access to the copper network in a wholesale environment. The wholesale environment could be naked DSL access, ...

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