O'Reilly logo

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

Building Construction Materials and Techniques

Book Description

Building Construction Materials and Techniques follows a unique approach to the subject by including both materials and construction techniques in a combined text as per the latest trends in university curriculums. It also caters to the needs of the universities where these subjects are offered across two semesters as well. Of the 32 chapters in this book, 13 are dedicated to building construction materials while the remaining 19 focus on conventional as well as modern techniques in construction. The chapters are supplemented by a plethora of self-explanatory illustrations for easy comprehension. Relevant references to IS codes and standards make this text ideal for extended learning.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Preface
  5. Chpater 1 PROPERTIES OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Classification of Engineering Materials
    3. 1.3 Qualities of Construction Materials
      1. 1.3.1 Physical Properties
      2. 1.3.2 Mechanical Properties
      3. 1.3.3 Electrical Properties
      4. 1.3.4 Magnetic Properties
      5. 1.3.5 Chemical Properties
    4. Salient Points
    5. Review Questions
  6. Chpater 2 BUILDING STONES
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Classification of Rocks
      1. 2.2.1 Geological or Genetic Classification
      2. 2.2.2 Physical Classification
      3. 2.2.3 Chemical Classification 8
    3. 2.3 Properties of Good Building Stones
      1. 2.3.1 Appearance and Colour
      2. 2.3.2 Strength
      3. 2.3.3 Weight
      4. 2.3.4 Hardness and Toughness
      5. 2.3.5 Porosity and Absorption
      6. 2.3.6 Compactness
      7. 2.3.7 Fineness of Grain
      8. 2.3.8 Resistance to Fire
      9. 2.3.9 Durability
      10. 2.3.10 Dressing
    4. 2.4 Types of Building Stones
      1. 2.4.1 Granite
      2. 2.4.2 Basalt and Trap
      3. 2.4.3 Limestone and Chalk
      4. 2.4.4 Sandstone
      5. 2.4.5 Laterite
      6. 2.4.6 Gneiss
      7. 2.4.7 Marble
      8. 2.4.8 Slate
      9. 2.4.9 Gravel
      10. 2.4.10 Quartzite
    5. 2.5 Uses of Common Building Stones
    6. 2.6 Useful Building Stones of India
      1. 2.6.1 Granite
      2. 2.6.2 Sandstone
      3. 2.6.3 Limestone
      4. 2.6.4 Gneiss
      5. 2.6.5 Marble
    7. 2.7 Quarrying of Building Stones
      1. 2.7.1 Quarry Location
      2. 2.7.2 Methods of Quarrying
      3. 2.7.3 Precautions in Handling Explosives
    8. 2.8 Dressing of Stones
    9. 2.9 Durability of Stones
      1. 2.9.1 Deteriorating Agencies of Stones
      2. 2.9.2 Preservation of Stones
    10. 2.10 Selection of Stones for Various Works
      1. 2.10.1 General Building Works
      2. 2.10.2 Buildings Exposed to High Wind
      3. 2.10.3 Buildings in Industrial Areas
      4. 2.10.4 Buildings Exposed to Heat and Fire
      5. 2.10.5 Heavy Engineering Works
      6. 2.10.6 Road Metals and Railway Ballasts
      7. 2.10.7 Facing and Architectural Items
    11. 2.11 Tests on Building Stones
      1. 2.11.1 Field Tests
      2. 2.11.2 Laboratory Tests
    12. 2.12 Artificial Stones
      1. 2.12.1 Types of Artificial Stones
      2. 2.12.2 Advantages of Artificial Stones
    13. Salient Points
    14. Review Questions
  7. Chpater 3 BRICKS
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Constituents of Brick Earth
      1. 3.2.1 Functions of Constituents of Brick Earth
      2. 3.2.2 Desirable Chemical Composition of Brick Earth
      3. 3.2.3 Harmful Ingredients in Brick Earth
      4. 3.2.4 Field Testing of Brick Earth
    3. 3.3 Selection of Site for Brick Earth
    4. 3.4 Manufacturing of Bricks
      1. 3.4.1 Preparation of Soil
      2. 3.4.2 Moulding of Bricks
      3. 3.4.3 Drying of Bricks
      4. 3.4.4 Burning of Bricks
    5. 3.5 Qualities of Good Bricks
    6. 3.6 Classification of Building Bricks and Uses
      1. 3.6.1 Quality Classification of Burnt Bricks
      2. 3.6.2 Indian Standard Classification of Burnt Bricks
    7. 3.7 Tests on Bricks
      1. 3.7.1 Compressive Strength Test
      2. 3.7.2 Water Absorption Test
      3. 3.7.3 Efflorescence Test
      4. 3.7.4 Dimensional Tolerance Test
      5. 3.7.5 Hardness Test
      6. 3.7.6 Soundness Test
      7. 3.7.7 Structure Test
    8. 3.8 Types of Bricks
      1. 3.8.1 Specially Shaped Bricks
      2. 3.8.2 Refractory Bricks
      3. 3.8.3 Pressed Bricks
      4. 3.8.4 Sand–Lime Bricks
      5. 3.8.5 Heavy-duty Bricks
      6. 3.8.6 Sewer Bricks
    9. Salient Points
    10. Review Questions
  8. Chpater 4 TILES AND CERAMIC MATERIALS
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Building Tiles
      1. 4.2.1 Characteristics of a Good Tile
      2. 4.2.2 Types of Tiles
      3. 4.2.3 Manufacture of Tiles
    3. 4.3 Earthenware
      1. 4.3.1 Terra-cotta
      2. 4.3.2 Porcelainware
    4. 4.4 Stoneware
    5. Salient Points
    6. Review Questions
  9. Chpater 5 LIME
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Constituents of Limestone
      1. 5.2.1 Clay
      2. 5.2.2 Soluble Silica
      3. 5.2.3 Magnesium Carbonate
      4. 5.2.4 Alkalis and Metallic Oxides
      5. 5.2.5 Sulphates
      6. 5.2.6 Iron
      7. 5.2.7 Pyrites
    3. 5.3 Properties of Lime
    4. 5.4 Classification of Lime and Their Uses
      1. 5.4.1 General Classification
      2. 5.4.2 Indian Standard Classification
    5. 5.5 Manufacture of Lime
      1. 5.5.1 Collection of Raw Materials
      2. 5.5.2 Burning of Limestone
      3. 5.5.3 Slaking of Burnt Lime
    6. 5.6 Precautions in Handling Lime
    7. 5.7 Storage of Lime
    8. 5.8 Laboratory Testing of Limestones
      1. 5.8.1 Physical Tests
      2. 5.8.2 Chemical Tests
    9. 5.9 Field Testing of Building Lime
      1. 5.9.1 Visual Examination
      2. 5.9.2 Hydrochloric Acid Test
      3. 5.9.3 Ball Test
      4. 5.9.4 Impurity Test
      5. 5.9.5 Plasticity Test
      6. 5.9.6 Workability Test
    10. 5.10 Pozzolanic Materials
    11. Salient Points
    12. Review Questions
  10. Chpater 6 CEMENT
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Ingredients of Cement and Their Functions
      1. 6.2.1 Lime
      2. 6.2.2 Silica
      3. 6.2.3 Alumina
      4. 6.2.4 Iron Oxide
      5. 6.2.5 Magnesium Oxide
      6. 6.2.6 Sulphur Trioxide
      7. 6.2.7 Alkalis
    3. 6.3 Requirements of Quality Cement
    4. 6.4 Properties of Ordinary Portland Cement
      1. 6.4.1 Physical Properties of Portland Cement
      2. 6.4.2 Chemical Properties of Portland Cement
    5. 6.5 Manufacturing of Ordinary Portland Cement
      1. 6.5.1 Wet Process
      2. 6.5.2 Dry Process
    6. 6.6 Chemical Composition and Hardening of Cement
    7. 6.7 Types of Cements and Their Uses
      1. 6.7.1 Types of Portland Cement
      2. 6.7.2 Other Types of Cements
    8. 6.8 Grades of Ordinary Portland Cement
    9. 6.9 Laboratory Tests on Cement
      1. 6.9.1 Fineness Test
      2. 6.9.2 Consistency Test
      3. 6.9.3 Setting Time Tests
      4. 6.9.4 Strength Test
      5. 6.9.5 Soundness Test
      6. 6.9.6 Tensile Strength Test
      7. 6.9.7 Heat of Hydration Test
      8. 6.9.8 Chemical Composition Test
    10. 6.10 Comparison Between Cement and Lime
    11. Salient Points
    12. Review Questions
  11. Chpater 7 MORTAR
  12. 7.1 Introduction
    1. 7.2 Qualities of Sand for Mortar
    2. 7.3 Qualities of Water for Mortar
    3. 7.4 Functions of Ingredients of Mortar
      1. 7.4.1 Functions of Cementing Materials
      2. 7.4.2 Functions of Fine Aggregates
      3. 7.4.3 Functions of Water
    4. 7.5 Functions of Mortar
    5. 7.6 Properties of Mortar
    6. 7.7 Types of Mortars and their Uses
      1. 7.7.1 Lime Mortar
      2. 7.7.2 Surkhi Mortar
      3. 7.7.3 Cement Mortar
      4. 7.7.4 Lime–Cement Mortar
      5. 7.7.5 Mud Mortar
      6. 7.7.6 Fire-resistant Mortar
      7. 7.7.7 Light-weight Mortar
      8. 7.7.8 Packing Mortar
      9. 7.7.9 Sound-absorbing Mortar
      10. 7.7.10 X-Ray Shielding Mortar
    7. 7.8 Preparation of Mortars
      1. 7.8.1 Preparation of Lime Mortar
      2. 7.8.2 Preparation of Cement Mortar
      3. 7.8.3 Preparation of Lime–Cement Mortar
    8. 7.9 Selection of Mortar for Different Purposes
    9. Salient Points
    10. Review Questions
  13. Chpater 8 CONCRETE
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Properties of Cement Concrete
    3. 8.3 Types of Cement Concrete and Uses
      1. 8.3.1 Plain Cement Concrete
      2. 8.3.2 Reinforced Cement Concrete
      3. 8.3.3 Pre-stressed Cement Concrete
      4. 8.3.4 Light-weight Cement Concrete
      5. 8.3.5 Precast Cement Concrete
    4. 8.4 Plain Cement Concrete
      1. 8.4.1 Fresh and Hardened Concrete
      2. 8.4.2 Aggregates
      3. 8.4.3 Water
    5. 8.5 Concrete Chemicals and Applications
      1. 8.5.1 Admixtures
      2. 8.5.2 Construction Chemicals
    6. 8.6 Grades of Cement Concrete
    7. 8.7 Mix Design Concept
      1. 8.7.1 American Concrete Institute (ACI) Method of Mix Design
      2. 8.7.2 Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Method of Mix Design
    8. 8.8 Manufacturing of Concrete
      1. 8.8.1 Proportioning of Concrete
      2. 8.8.2 Batching of Materials
      3. 8.8.3 Mixing of Concrete
      4. 8.8.4 Conveyance of Concrete
      5. 8.8.5 Compaction of Concrete
      6. 8.8.6 Curing of Concrete
    9. 8.9 Finishing
      1. 8.9.1 Formwork Finishes
      2. 8.9.2 Surface Treatment
      3. 8.9.3 Applied Finish
    10. 8.10 Testing of Fresh and Hardened Concrete
      1. 8.10.1 Testing of Fresh Concrete
      2. 8.10.2 Testing of Hardened Concrete
    11. 8.11 Cracks in Concrete
      1. 8.11.1 Plastic Shrinkage Cracks
      2. 8.11.2 Settlement Cracks
      3. 8.11.3 Cracks Due to Bleeding
      4. 8.11.4 Cracks Due to Delayed Concrete Curing
      5. 8.11.5 Cracks Due to Construction Effects
    12. 8.12 Quality Control of Concrete
    13. 8.13 Non-destructive Testing
      1. 8.13.1 Schmidt’s Rebound Hammer
      2. 8.13.2 Frequency Method
      3. 8.13.3 Nuclear Method
      4. 8.13.4 Radioactive Method
      5. 8.13.5 Pullout Test
      6. 8.13.6 Pulse Velocity Method
    14. 8.14 Lime Concrete
      1. 8.14.1 Ingredients of Lime Concrete
      2. 8.14.2 Properties of Lime Concrete
      3. 8.14.3 Preparation of Lime Concrete
      4. 8.14.4 Uses of Lime Concrete
      5. 8.14.5 Precautions
    15. Salient Points
    16. Review Questions
  14. Chpater 9 PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Prefabrication in Construction
    3. 9.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Precast Concrete
      1. 9.3.1 Advantages
      2. 9.3.2 Disadvantages
    4. 9.4 Components of Building
      1. 9.4.1 Modular Co-ordination
      2. 9.4.2 Dimensions of Precast Elements
    5. 9.5 Manufacture of Precast Concrete Elements
      1. 9.5.1 Factory Prefabrication
      2. 9.5.2 Site Prefabrication
      3. 9.5.3 Process of Manufacture
    6. 9.6 Types of Precast Units
      1. 9.6.1 Hollow Concrete Blocks
      2. 9.6.2 Lintel Units
      3. 9.6.3 Door and Window Frames
      4. 9.6.4 Roofing and Flooring Elements
      5. 9.6.5 Precast Shell Units
      6. 9.6.6 Sunshade Unit
    7. Salient Points
    8. Review Questions
  15. Chpater 10 TIMBER AND INDUSTRIAL TIMBER PRODUCTS
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Trees
      1. 10.2.1 Basic Structure of a Tree
      2. 10.2.2 Classification of Trees
      3. 10.2.3 Structure of Exogenous Trees
      4. 10.2.4 Growth of a Tree
      5. 10.2.5 Felling of Trees
    3. 10.3 Classification of Timber
      1. 10.3.1 Classification of Teak
      2. 10.3.2 Classification of Deodar
      3. 10.3.3 Classification of Other Woods
    4. 10.4 Characteristics of Good Timber
      1. 10.4.1 Strength 140
      2. 10.4.2 Hardness
      3. 10.4.3 Fire-resistant
      4. 10.4.4 Structure
      5. 10.4.5 Elasticity
      6. 10.4.6 Durability
      7. 10.4.7 Defects
      8. 10.4.8 Weight
      9. 10.4.9 Fibres
      10. 10.4.10 Workability
      11. 10.4.11 Colour
      12. 10.4.12 Sound
    5. 10.5 Defects in Timber
      1. 10.5.1 Knots
      2. 10.5.2 Shakes
      3. 10.5.3 Twisted Fibres
      4. 10.5.4 Upset
      5. 10.5.5 Rind Galls
      6. 10.5.6 Wind Cracks
      7. 10.5.7 Sloping Grains
      8. 10.5.8 Presence of Sapwood
    6. 10.6 Conversion
      1. 10.6.1 Ordinary Sawing
      2. 10.6.2 Quarter Sawing
      3. 10.6.3 Tangential Sawing
      4. 10.6.4 Radial or Rift Sawing
    7. 10.7 Seasoning
      1. 10.7.1 Objectives of Seasoning
      2. 10.7.2 Methods of Seasoning
    8. 10.8 Decay of Wood
    9. 10.9 Preservation of Timber
      1. 10.9.1 Requirements for a Good Preservative
      2. 10.9.2 Types of Preservatives
      3. 10.9.3 Preservative Treatment of Timber
    10. 10.10 Testing of Timber
      1. 10.10.1 Tensile Strength Test
      2. 10.10.2 Compressive Strength Test
      3. 10.10.3 Shear Strength Test
      4. 10.10.4 Bending Strength Test
      5. 10.10.5 Moisture Content Test
    11. 10.11 Industrial Timber Products
      1. 10.11.1 Plywood
      2. 10.11.2 Particle Board or Chip Board
      3. 10.11.3 Hard Board
      4. 10.11.4 Fibre Board
      5. 10.11.5 Block Board
      6. 10.11.6 Decorative Laminates
      7. 10.11.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Processed Timber
    12. Salient Points
    13. Review Questions
  16. Chpater 11 METALS AND ALLOYS
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Ferrous Metals
      1. 11.2.1 Iron Ores
      2. 11.2.2 Pig Iron
      3. 11.2.3 Wrought Iron
      4. 11.2.4 Cast Iron
      5. 11.2.5 Steel
      6. 11.2.6 Alloy Steels
    3. 11.3 Non-ferrous Metals
      1. 11.3.1 Aluminium
      2. 11.3.2 Copper
      3. 11.3.3 Lead
      4. 11.3.4 Tin
      5. 11.3.5 Zinc
      6. 11.3.6 Magnesium
      7. 11.3.7 Nickel
    4. 11.4 Non-ferrous Alloys
      1. 11.4.1 Copper Alloys
      2. 11.4.2 Aluminium Alloys
      3. 11.4.3 Magnesium Alloys
      4. 11.4.4 Nickel Alloys
    5. Salient Points
    6. Review Questions
  17. Chpater 12 SURFACE FINISHING MATERIALS
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Paints
      1. 12.2.1 Functions of Paints
      2. 12.2.2 Constituents of an Oil Paint
      3. 12.2.3 Characteristics of a Good Paint
      4. 12.2.4 Types of Paints
    3. 12.3 Varnishes
      1. 12.3.1 Functions of Varnishes
      2. 12.3.2 Constituents of Varnish
      3. 12.3.3 Properties of an Ideal Varnish
      4. 12.3.4 Types of Varnishes
    4. 12.4 Distempers
      1. 12.4.1 Function of Distempers
      2. 12.4.2 Constituents of Distempers
      3. 12.4.3 Properties of Distempers
      4. 12.4.4 Types of Distempers
    5. 12.5 White and Colour Washing
    6. 12.6 Miscellaneous Surface Finishes
      1. 12.6.1 Wallpapering
      2. 12.6.2 Wall Tiling
      3. 12.6.3 Coal Tarring
      4. 12.6.4 Waxing or Wax Polishing
      5. 12.6.5 Wood Oiling
    7. Salient Points
    8. Review Questions
  18. Chpater 13 OTHER BUILDING MATERIALS
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Asbestos
      1. 13.2.1 Types of Asbestos
      2. 13.2.2 Properties of Asbestos
      3. 13.2.3 Uses of Asbestos
      4. 13.2.4 Products of Asbestos
    3. 13.3 Fly Ash
      1. 13.3.1 Constituents of Fly Ash
      2. 13.3.2 Uses of Fly Ash
    4. 13.4 Gypsum Plaster
      1. 13.4.1 Properties of Gypsum Plaster
      2. 13.4.2 Uses of Gypsum Plaster
    5. 13.5 Bituminous Materials
      1. 13.5.1 Bitumen
      2. 13.5.2 Tar
    6. 13.6 Glass
      1. 13.6.1 Constituents of Glass
      2. 13.6.2 Properties of Glass
      3. 13.6.3 Types and Uses of Glass
    7. 13.7 Plastics
      1. 13.7.1 Types of Plastics and their Properties
      2. 13.7.2 Uses of Plastics
    8. 13.8 Composite Materials
      1. 13.8.1 Reinforcing Fibres
      2. 13.8.2 Matrix
    9. 13.9 Miscellaneous Materials
      1. 13.9.1 Rubber
      2. 13.9.2 Geosynthetics
      3. 13.9.3 Adhesives
    10. Salient Points
    11. Review Questions
  19. Chpater 14 PLANNING OF BUILDINGS
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Importance of Housing
      1. 14.2.1 Housing Programme
      2. 14.2.2 Priorities in Housing
      3. 14.2.3 National Level Housing Organizations
    3. 14.3 Classification of Buildings
      1. 14.3.1 Occupancy Classification
      2. 14.3.2 Types of Construction Based on Fire-Resistance
    4. 14.4 Principles of Planning of Buildings
      1. 14.4.1 Aspect
      2. 14.4.2 Prospect
      3. 14.4.3 Privacy
      4. 14.4.4 Grouping
      5. 14.4.5 Roominess
      6. 14.4.6 Furniture Requirement
      7. 14.4.7 Sanitation
      8. 14.4.8 Flexibility
      9. 14.4.9 Circulation
      10. 14.4.10 Elegance
      11. 14.4.11 Economy
      12. 14.4.12 Practical Considerations
    5. 14.5 Basic Requirements of Building
      1. 14.5.1 Building Line
      2. 14.5.2 Set Back Line
      3. 14.5.3 Covered Area
      4. 14.5.4 Plinth Area
      5. 14.5.5 Floor Area and Floor Area Ratio
      6. 14.5.6 Carpet Area
      7. 14.5.7 Building Height
      8. 14.5.8 Room Height
      9. 14.5.9 Habitable Rooms
      10. 14.5.10 Bathroom
      11. 14.5.11 Water Closet
      12. 14.5.12 Balcony
    6. 14.6 Building Components and Their Functions
      1. 14.6.1 Substructure
      2. 14.6.2 Superstructure
    7. 14.7 Orientation of Building
      1. 14.7.1 Factors Affecting Orientation
      2. 14.7.2 Orientation Criteria under Indian Conditions
    8. 14.8 Construction Sequence of Residential Building
    9. Salient Points
    10. Review Questions
  20. Chpater 15 FOUNDATIONS
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Soil Investigation
      1. 15.2.1 Planning the Ground Investigation
      2. 15.2.2 Methods of Exploration
    3. 15.3 Types of Soils
      1. 15.3.1 Residual Soils
      2. 15.3.2 Transported Soils
      3. 15.3.3 Regional Soil Deposits of India
      4. 15.3.4 Re-claimed Soils
    4. 15.4 Bearing Capacity
      1. 15.4.1 Bearing Capacity Criteria
      2. 15.4.2 Factors Affecting Bearing Capacity
      3. 15.4.3 Methods of Determining Bearing Capacity
      4. 15.4.4 Improvement of Bearing Capacity of Soils
    5. 15.5 Functions of Foundations
      1. 15.5.1 Load and Load Distribution
      2. 15.5.2 Stability Requirements
      3. 15.5.3 Settlement Control
      4. 15.5.4 Safety Against Natural Events
      5. 15.5.5 Requirements of Good Foundation
    6. 15.6 Shallow and Deep Foundations
      1. 15.6.1 Types and Suitability of Shallow Foundations
      2. 15.6.2 Types and Suitability of Deep Foundations
      3. 15.6.3 Foundation under Special Conditions
    7. 15.7 Causes of Foundation Settlement
    8. 15.8 Selection and Design of Simple Foundations
      1. 15.8.1 Selection Procedure
      2. 15.8.2 Design Procedure
      3. 15.8.3 Design of Shallow Foundations
      4. 15.8.4 Design of Piles
    9. 15.9 Excavation for Foundation
      1. 15.9.1 Shallow Excavations with Unsupported Slopes
      2. 15.9.2 Shallow Excavations with Sheeting and Bracing
      3. 15.9.3 Deep Excavations
    10. 15.10 Construction of Foundations for Buildings
      1. 15.10.1 Construction of Spread Footing
      2. 15.10.2 Construction of Combined Footing
      3. 15.10.3 Construction of Continuous Footing
      4. 15.10.4 Construction of Mat Foundation
    11. Salient Points
    12. Review Questions
  21. Chpater 16 MASONRY CONSTRUCTION
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Brick Masonry
      1. 16.2.1 Terminology
      2. 16.2.2 Brick Laying Tools
      3. 16.2.3 Materials Used
      4. 16.2.4 Bonds in Brickwork
      5. 16.2.5 Comparison of English and Flemish Bonds
      6. 16.2.6 General Principles of Construction of Brick Masonry
    3. 16.3 Stone Masonry
      1. 16.3.1 Terminology
      2. 16.3.2 Materials Used
      3. 16.3.3 Cutting and Dressing of Stones
      4. 16.3.4 Types of Stone Masonry
      5. 16.3.5 General Principles of Construction of Stone Masonry
      6. 16.3.6 Comparison of Brick and Stone Masonry
    4. 16.4 Concrete Hollow Block Masonry
      1. 16.4.1 Use of Hollow Concrete Blocks for Masonry
      2. 16.4.2 Laying of Concrete Hollow Block Masonry
      3. 16.4.3 Concrete Blocks with Concrete Filling
      4. 16.4.4 Reinforced Concrete Hollow Block Masonry
      5. 16.4.5 Special Features of Concrete Block Masonry
      6. 16.4.6 Compound Walls in Hollow Block
    5. 16.5 Reinforced Brick Masonry
      1. 16.5.1 Reinforced Brick Masonry Walls
      2. 16.5.2 Reinforced Brick Masonry Columns
      3. 16.5.3 Reinforced Brick Masonry Lintel
      4. 16.5.4 Reinforced Brick Masonry Slab
    6. Salient Points
    7. Review Questions
  22. Chpater 17 WALLS
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Load-bearing Walls
      1. 17.2.1 Solid Wall
      2. 17.2.2 Solid Wall with Piers or Pilasters
      3. 17.2.3 Cavity Wall
      4. 17.2.4 Faced Wall
      5. 17.2.5 Veneered Wall
    3. 17.3 Non-load Bearing Walls
      1. 17.3.1 Panel Wall
      2. 17.3.2 Partition Wall
      3. 17.3.3 Curtain Wall
      4. 17.3.4 Free-Standing Wall
    4. 17.4 Loads on Walls
      1. 17.4.1 Vertical Loads
      2. 17.4.2 Lateral Loads
    5. 17.5 Lateral Supports and Stability
    6. 17.6 Effective Height of Walls
    7. 17.7 Effective Length of Walls
    8. 17.8 Effective Thickness of Walls
    9. 17.9 Slenderness Ratio and Stiffness
    10. 17.10 Reinforced Brick Walls
    11. 17.11 Eccentrically Loaded Brick Wall
      1. 17.11.1 Exterior Walls
      2. 17.11.2 Interior Walls
      3. 17.11.3 Stress Distribution Under Eccentric Loads
    12. 17.12 Cracking in Walls
      1. 17.12.1 Causes
      2. 17.12.2 Preventive Measures
    13. Salient Points
    14. Review Questions
  23. Chpater 18 FRAMED STRUCTURES
    1. 18.1 Introduction
      1. 18.2 Concept of Framed Structures
      2. 18.2.1 Principles of Framed Structures
      3. 18.2.2 Materials Used for Framed Structures
      4. 18.2.3 Advantages of Framed Structures
    2. 18.3 Tall Buildings
      1. 18.3.1 Advantages of Tall Buildings
      2. 18.3.2 Disadvantages of Tall Buildings
      3. 18.3.3 Construction of Tall Buildings
    3. 18.4 Pre-Fabricated Buildings
      1. 18.4.1 Design and Manufacturing
      2. 18.4.2 Delivery and Storage of Pre-fabricated Structures
      3. 18.4.3 Pre-assembly of Pre-fabricated Concrete Structural Units
    4. 18.5 Erection of Pre-fabricated Multi-Storey Frame Buildings
    5. Salient Points
    6. Review Questions
  24. Chpater 19 ARCHES AND LINTELS
    1. 19.1 Introduction
    2. 19.2 Arches
      1. 19.2.1 Stability of Arches
      2. 19.2.2 Terminologies in Arch Work
      3. 19.2.3 Types of Arches
      4. 19.2.4 Materials Used for Arches
      5. 19.2.5 Methods of Construction of Arches
    3. 19.3 Lintels
      1. 19.3.1 Purpose of Lintels
      2. 19.3.2 Types of Lintels
    4. 19.4 Plinth Beams and Grade Beams
      1. 19.4.1 Plinth Beams
      2. 19.4.2 Grade Beams
    5. Salient Points
    6. Review Questions
  25. Chpater 20 DOORS AND WINDOWS
    1. 20.1 Introduction
    2. 20.2 Technical Terms
    3. 20.3 Doors
      1. 20.3.1 Standard Sizes of Doors
      2. 20.3.2 Materials Used
      3. 20.3.3 Types of Doors
    4. 20.4 Windows
      1. 20.4.1 Window Shutter Movements
      2. 20.4.2 Types of Windows
      3. 20.4.3 Standard Sizes of Windows
    5. 20.5 Ventilators
    6. Salient Points
    7. Review Questions
  26. Chpater 21 STAIRS AND ELEVATORS
    1. 21.1 Introduction
    2. 21.2 Components of a Staircase
    3. 21.3 Requirements of a Good Stair
      1. 21.3.1 Location
      2. 21.3.2 Width of Stair
      3. 21.3.3 Pitch of a Stair
      4. 21.3.4 Length of a Flight
      5. 21.3.5 Headroom
      6. 21.3.6 Materials of a Stair
      7. 21.3.7 Landing
      8. 21.3.8 Winder
      9. 21.3.9 Step Proportions
    4. 21.4 Types of Stairs
      1. 21.4.1 Straight Stairs
      2. 21.4.2 Quarter-turn Stairs
      3. 21.4.3 Dog-legged Stairs
      4. 21.4.4 Three-quarter Turn Stairs
      5. 21.4.5 Geometrical Stairs
      6. 21.4.6 Bifurcated Stairs
      7. 21.4.7 Multiple Flight Stairs
    5. 21.5 Materials Used for Stairs
      1. 21.5.1 Timber Stairs
      2. 21.5.2 Stone Stairs
      3. 21.5.3 Brick Stairs
      4. 21.5.4 Steel Stairs
      5. 21.5.5 Concrete Stairs
    6. 21.6 Design Principles of Staircase
      1. 21.6.1 Dead Loads
      2. 21.6.2 Live Loads
      3. 21.6.3 Effective Span of Stairs
      4. 21.6.4 Rise and Tread
      5. 21.6.5 Distribution of Load
    7. 21.7 Ramps
    8. 21.8 Elevators
      1. 21.8.1 Components of an Elevator
      2. 21.8.2 Structural Component of an Elevator
      3. 21.8.3 Types of Elevators
    9. 21.9 Escalators
      1. 21.9.1 Essential Parts of Escalator
      2. 21.9.2 Speed and Slope of Escalator
      3. 21.9.3 Location of Escalator
      4. 21.9.4 Design Aspects of Escalator
      5. 21.9.5 Installation
    10. Salient Points
    11. Review Questions
  27. Chpater 22 TEMPORARY SUPPORTING STRUCTURES
    1. 22.1 Introduction
    2. 22.2 Formwork
      1. 22.2.1 Requirements of Formwork
      2. 22.2.2 Materials Used
    3. 22.3 De-Shuttering of Formworks
    4. 22.4 Scaffolding
      1. 22.4.1 Components of Scaffolding
      2. 22.4.2 Requirements of Scaffolding
      3. 22.4.3 Types of Scaffolding
    5. 22.5 Shoring
      1. 22.5.1 Installation of Shoring
      2. 22.5.2 Types of Shoring
    6. 22.6 Underpinning
      1. 22.6.1 Uses of Underpinning
      2. 22.6.2 Precautionary Measures Before Underpinning
      3. 22.6.3 Methods of Underpinning
    7. Salient Points
    8. Review Questions
  28. Chpater 23 GROUND AND UPPER FLOORS
    1. 23.1 Introduction
    2. 23.2 Functions of a Floor
    3. 23.3 Selection of Floors
      1. 23.3.1 Ground Floors
      2. 23.3.2 Upper Floors
      3. 23.3.3 Basement Floor
    4. 23.4 Types of Ground Floors
      1. 23.4.1 Stone Floors
      2. 23.4.2 Brick Floors
      3. 23.4.3 Concrete Floors
      4. 23.4.4 Granolithic Floors
      5. 23.4.5 Terrazo Floors
      6. 23.4.6 Mosaic Floors
      7. 23.4.7 Tiled Floors
      8. 23.4.8 Asphalt Floors
      9. 23.4.9 Marble Floors
      10. 23.4.10 Timber Floors
    5. 23.5 Types of Upper Floors
      1. 23.5.1 Timber Floors
      2. 23.5.2 Jack Arch Brick Floors
      3. 23.5.3 RCC Slab Floors
      4. 23.5.4 RCC Beam and Slab Floors
      5. 23.5.5 RCC T-Beam Slab Floors
      6. 23.5.6 Flat Slab Floors
      7. 23.5.7 Resilient Floors
      8. 23.5.8 Hollow Block and Rib Floors
    6. Salient Points
    7. Review Questions
  29. Chpater 24 STRUCTURAL STEEL WORKS
    1. 24.1 Introduction
    2. 24.2 Steel Sections
      1. 24.2.1 Bars
      2. 24.2.2 Plates
      3. 24.2.3 Flats
      4. 24.2.4 Angle Sections
      5. 24.2.5 Channel Sections
      6. 24.2.6 I and T Sections
      7. 24.2.7 Expanded Metal
      8. 24.2.8 Ribbed TOR Steel Bars
    3. 24.3 Methods of Steel Connections
      1. 24.3.1 Riveted Connections
      2. 24.3.2 Bolt Connections
      3. 24.3.3 Welded Connections
    4. 24.4 Built-up Sections
    5. 24.5 Structural Steel Members
      1. 24.5.1 Steel Trusses
      2. 24.5.2 Steel Beams
      3. 24.5.3 Steel Columns
    6. 24.6 Fabrication of Steel Works
    7. 24.7 Erection of Steel Works
    8. 24.8 Miscellaneous Steel Works
      1. 24.8.1 Fixing of Steel in Wooden Frames
      2. 24.8.2 Fixing of Rolling Shutters
    9. Salient Points
    10. Review Questions
  30. Chpater 25 ROOFS AND ROOF COVERINGS
    1. 25.1 Introduction
    2. 25.2 Requirements of a Roof
    3. 25.3 Types of Roofs
    4. 25.4 Sloping Roofs
      1. 25.4.1 Terminologies
      2. 25.4.2 Types of Timber Sloping Roofs
      3. 25.4.3 Types of Steel Sloping Roofs
      4. 25.4.4 Roof Coverings of Sloping Roofs
    5. 25.5 Flat Roofs
      1. 25.5.1 Madras Terrace Roof
      2. 25.5.2 Reinforced Cement Concrete Roof
      3. 25.5.3 Bengal Terrace Roof
      4. 25.5.4 Jack Arch Flat Roof
      5. 25.5.5 Mud Terrace Roof
      6. 25.5.6 Weather-Proof Course for Flat Roofs
      7. 25.5.7 Waterproofing of Flat Roofs
      8. 25.5.8 Drainage of Flat Roofs
      9. 25.5.9 Merits and Demerits of Flat Roofs
    6. 25.6 Shell Roofs
      1. 25.6.1 Type of Shell Roofs
      2. 25.6.2 Merits and Demerits of Shell Roofs
      3. 25.6.3 Erection of Prefabricated Concrete Shell Elements
    7. Salient Points
    8. Review Questions
  31. Chpater 26 BUILDING FINISHES
    1. 26.1 Introduction
    2. 26.2 Plastering
      1. 26.2.1 Objects of Plastering
      2. 26.2.2 Requirements of a Good Plaster
      3. 26.2.3 Preparation of Surface for Plastering
      4. 26.2.4 External Finishes
      5. 26.2.5 Tools for Plastering
      6. 26.2.6 Plastering Techniques
      7. 26.2.7 Defects and Remedial Measures in Plastering
    3. 26.3 Pointing
      1. 26.3.1 Mortar for Pointing
      2. 26.3.2 Methods of Pointing
      3. 26.3.3 Types of Pointing
    4. 26.4 Painting
      1. 26.4.1 Preparation of Surfaces
      2. 26.4.2 Application of Coats
    5. 26.5 Varnishing
      1. 26.5.1 Preparation of Surfaces
      2. 26.5.2 Application of Coats
    6. 26.6 White/Colour Washing
    7. 26.7 Distempering
    8. Salient Points
    9. Review Questions
  32. Chpater 27 ESSENTIAL SERVICES IN BUILDINGS
    1. 27.1 Introduction
    2. 27.2 Plumbing Services
      1. 27.2.1 Plumbing Terms
      2. 27.2.2 Principles of Plumbing Services in Buildings
    3. 27.3 Water Supply
      1. 27.3.1 Design of Water Distribution System
      2. 27.3.2 Water Supply Fittings and Fixtures
      3. 27.3.3 Materials of Water Pipes
    4. 27.4 Drainage of Wastewater and Sewage
      1. 27.4.1 Need for Treatment of Sewage
      2. 27.4.2 Sanitary Fittings and Appliances
      3. 27.4.3 Plumbing System of Drainage
      4. 27.4.4 Layout of Building Drainage
      5. 27.4.5 Pipes for Drainage
      6. 27.4.6 Sludge and Effluent Disposal
    5. 27.5 Electrical Supply
      1. 27.5.1 Single and Three-Phase Supply
      2. 27.5.2 Distribution Circuits
      3. 27.5.3 Materials and Devices Used in Wiring
      4. 27.5.4 Wiring of Buildings
    6. Salient Points
    7. Review Questions
  33. Chpater 28 SPECIAL SERVICES IN BUILDINGS
    1. 28.1 Introduction
    2. 28.2 Air-Conditioning of Buildings
      1. 28.2.1 Purposes of Air-Conditioning
      2. 28.2.2 Terminologies
      3. 28.2.3 Classification of Air-Conditioning
      4. 28.2.4 Principles of Comfort Air-Conditioning
      5. 28.2.5 Systems of Air-Conditioning
      6. 28.2.6 Requirement of Air-Conditioning Systems
    3. 28.3 Thermal Insulation of Buildings
      1. 28.3.1 Purpose of Thermal Insulation
      2. 28.3.2 Causes for Heat Transfer
      3. 28.3.3 Principles of Thermal Insulation
      4. 28.3.4 Heat Insulation Materials
      5. 28.3.5 Methods of Thermal Insulation
    4. 28.4 Acoustics and Sound Insulation
      1. 28.4.1 Effects of Audible Sound
      2. 28.4.2 Principles of Acoustics
      3. 28.4.3 Acoustical Defects
      4. 28.4.4 Acoustical Materials
    5. Salient Points
    6. Review Questions
  34. Chpater 29 PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    1. 29.1 Introduction
    2. 29.2 Anti-Termite Treatment
      1. 29.2.1 Termites
      2. 29.2.2 Principles of Termite-Proofing
      3. 29.2.3 Methods of Termite-Proofing
    3. 29.3 Damp Prevention
      1. 29.3.1 Sources of Dampness
      2. 29.3.2 Effects of Dampness
      3. 29.3.3 Methods of Damp-proofing
      4. 29.3.4 DPC Treatment in Buildings
      5. 29.3.5 Materials used for DPC
      6. 29.3.6 Damp-proof Surface Treatment
      7. 29.3.7 Integral Damp-proofing Treatment
    4. 29.4 Fire Protection
      1. 29.4.1 Fire-Resisting Properties of Building Materials
      2. 29.4.2 Fire-Load
      3. 29.4.3 BIS Grading
      4. 29.4.4 General Safety Requirements Against Fire
      5. 29.4.5 Emergency Fire Safety Measures
    5. 29.5 Protection from Lightning
    6. 29.6 Earthquake-Resistant Buildings
      1. 29.6.1 Causes of Earthquakes
      2. 29.6.2 Magnitude of Earthquake
      3. 29.6.3 Seismic Zones of India
      4. 29.6.4 Effects of Earthquake on Structures
      5. 29.6.5 General Requirement
      6. 29.6.6 Major Design Considerations
    7. Salient Points
    8. Review Questions
  35. Chpater 30 PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS
    1. 30.1 Introduction
    2. 30.2 Maintenance of Floorings
      1. 30.2.1 Terrazzo Floors
      2. 30.2.2 Marble Floors
      3. 30.2.3 Linoleum Floors
      4. 30.2.4 Concrete Floors
      5. 30.2.5 Other Floors
    3. 30.3 Maintenance of Doors and Windows
      1. 30.3.1 Maintenance of Woodwork
      2. 30.3.2 Maintenance of Glass
    4. 30.4 Maintenance of Water Supply System
    5. 30.5 Maintenance of Sanitary Appliances
    6. 30.6 Maintenance of Drainage System
      1. 30.6.1 Fittings Inside the Buildings
      2. 30.6.2 Waste and Soil Pipes
      3. 30.6.3 Gulley and Manholes
      4. 30.6.4 Roof Drainage System
      5. 30.6.5 Septic Tanks
    7. 30.7 Maintenance of Paintwork
    8. 30.8 Maintenance of Brickwork
      1. 30.8.1 Cleaning Brickwork
      2. 30.8.2 Removal of Efflorescence in Brickwork
      3. 30.8.3 Repairing of Cracks in Brickwork
      4. 30.8.4 Re-pointing Old Brickwork
      5. 30.8.5 Re-painting Brickwork
    9. 30.9 Maintenance of Stonework
      1. 30.9.1 Removal of Efflorescence in Stonework
      2. 30.9.2 Removal of Stains in Stonework
      3. 30.9.3 Repair of Cracks in Stonework
      4. 30.9.4 Waterproofing of Stonework
    10. 30.10 Cracks and Remedial Measures in Concrete
      1. 30.10.1 Causes of Cracks in Concrete
      2. 30.10.2 Preventive Measures for Crack in Concrete
      3. 30.10.3 Stitching of Cracks in Concrete Members
      4. 30.10.4 Repair of Concrete by Gunite and Shortcrete
    11. 30.11 Checking Building Leakage
      1. 30.11.1 Leakage in Sloping Roofs
      2. 30.11.2 Leakage of Flat Roofs
      3. 30.11.3 Leakage Through Junction of Walls and Sunshades
      4. 30.11.4 Leakage Through Wall Cracks
    12. 30.12 Maintenance of Electrical System
    13. Salient Points
    14. Review Questions
  36. Chpater 31 CONSTRUCTION PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
    1. 31.1 Introduction
    2. 31.2 Objectives of Planning
    3. 31.3 Stages of Plannning
      1. 31.3.1 Job Planning
      2. 31.3.2 Technical Planning
      3. 31.3.3 Contract Planning
      4. 31.3.4 Advantages and Limitations of Planning
    4. 31.4 Scheduling Procedures
      1. 31.4.1 Construction Schedule
      2. 31.4.2 Labour Schedule
      3. 31.4.3 Material Schedule
      4. 31.4.4 Equipment Schedule
      5. 31.4.5 Expenditure Schedule
    5. 31.5 Scheduling Techniques
      1. 31.5.1 Bar Charts
      2. 31.5.2 Milestone Charts
      3. 31.5.3 Network Analysis
    6. 31.6 Site Clearance
    7. 31.7 Job Layout
    8. 31.8 Temporary Sheds
    9. 31.9 Setting Out Works
    10. Salient Points
    11. Review Questions
  37. Chpater 32 CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT
    1. 32.1 Introduction
    2. 32.2 Cost of Equipment
      1. 32.2.1 Procurement Cost
      2. 32.2.2 Operating Cost
    3. 32.3 Types of Equipment
      1. 32.3.1 Earthwork Equipment
      2. 32.3.2 De-watering Equipment
      3. 32.3.3 Compaction Equipment
      4. 32.3.4 Pile Driving Equipment
      5. 32.3.5 Movement and Hosting Equipment
      6. 32.3.6 Hauling Equipment
    4. Salient Points
    5. Review Questions
  38. Objective Type Questions and Answers
  39. Bibliography