Many naturally available materials have been in use for construction purposes since pre-historic times. Some of the materials are soil (earth), stone, rock, wood and water. These materials are available abundantly in nature. While some of these materials may be directly used without processing, others may need additional refinement to fit in the exact requirement.

Naturally available materials are used as raw materials to produce construction materials, e.g., clay is used to produce bricks and tiles. These materials may be used in different fields of engineering.

There is a need to know the various properties of these construction materials in order to ensure their proper application. ...

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