We use metals daily in one form or the other. Metals are also used for various engineering works such as structural members, roofing materials, reinforcing material, pipes, tanks, etc. Among the metals, iron is the most commonly used one. It is also available in abundance. It is stated that about 5% of iron is present in the crust of the earth.

Iron is extracted from solid naturally occurring mineral aggregates called ores. About five important iron ores are used to extract the metal iron.

Metals are grouped under two broad groups, viz.,

  1. Ferrous metals and
  2. Non-ferrous metals.

Iron is the main constituent of ferrous metals. The important ferrous metals are, viz., pig iron, cast-iron, wrought iron and steel. ...

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