There are several naturally available civil engineering materials or materials directly produced from natural materials. Among them are binding materials, which play a major role. Lime, cement and bitumen are important for civil engineers.
Binding materials may be of air binding, hydraulic binding and autoclave binding.
Air binding materials, also known as air-setting binding substances, pass into a stone state in air, gain strength and then retain their mechanical properties. Lime, cement, gypsum, etc., are examples of air binding materials.
Hydraulic binding materials, also known as hydraulic-setting substances, pass into a stone stage in air and as well as in water, gain strength and then retain their mechanical properties. ...