Among the binding materials, cement is of recent origin compared to those used in the construction of different monuments throughout the world.

Undoubtedly the credit goes to John Smeaton, a British Engineer, in the year 1756, who was given the responsibility of rebuilding the Eddystone lighthouse. Based on an exhaustive collection of information about the binding materials used in earlier days and in experiments, he found that limestone which contained a considerable proportion of clay yielded superior hydraulic properties. His basic investigation attributed to the invention of cement by Joseph Aspdin in 1824. He patented the cement as Portland Cement. As the hardened cement showed the resemblance of the natural ...

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