**Vector space models** are algebraic models most commonly used in text analysis applications for representing text documents using the words as vectors. This is widely used in information retrieval applications. In text analysis, let's say we want to find the similarity between two sentences. How do we go about this? We know that to compute similarity measure metric, the data should be all numeric. When it comes to a sentence we have words rather than numerals. Vectors space models allow us to represent the words present in the sentences in numeric form so that we can apply any of the similarity calculation metrics, such as cosine similarity.

This representation of sentences of words in numeric form can be done in two popular ways: ...

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