Organisation: the management structure, roles, responsibilities and
Processes: the business proc
esses used to deliver the organisation’s
products and services to customers, and to support its work;
People: the staﬀ members responsible for implementing the business
processes and carrying out the work of the organisation;
Technology: the hardware and software systems used to support the work
of the organisation.
Using the four-view model
The technique is used as an aide-memoire when deﬁning the elements that need
to be considered during a business change process. For example, if the business
processes are to be improved then their impacts upon the other three areas may
change: the IT systems may need enhancement to support the new processes; the
users – the people – may need to be trained and informed of their new roles; the
management structure may need to be amended to reﬂect the revised roles and
responsibilities. When deﬁning changes to any part of an organisation or business
system it is vital that the other three elements of the model are considered and
the corresponding changes identiﬁed.
The four-view model is drawn to illustrate that a whole organisation or business
system consists of four elements that need to work in concert. Changing one of
these elements inevitably has an impact upon the other three, and all four
aspects need to work together if the business changes are to be successful.
A process that has been redesigned to be highly eﬃcient will be diminished by
untrained staﬀ or poor-quality IT support; a highly motivated and skilled team of
staﬀ will fail to deliver optimum performance if the business processes they are
operating are cumbersome and bureaucratic.
Techniques 10 and 11: Critical success factors and key performance indicators
Description of the techniques
Critical success factors (CSFs) and key performance indicators (KPIs) are used to
determine measures of organisational performance. CSFs are identiﬁed ﬁrst,
since they are the areas of performance that the organisation considers vital to its
success. They are typically broad-brush statements such as ‘customer service’ or
‘low costs’. Two types of CSF should be considered:
Industry-wide CSFs – the are
as of eﬀective performance that are necessary for
any organisation operating within a particular business domain or market
sector. For example, all airlines have ‘safety of operations’ as a CSF – no airline
that disregards safety is likely to operate for very long. These CSFs do not
diﬀerentiate between organisations, but they allow them to continue operating.