with activities that are outside the scope of the study, it is still advisable to
identify them as issues to be addressed. However, the focus of the gap
analysis will be on the other areas.
As a result of this analysis, the gaps that will need to be bridged in order to
implement the desired business system will be identiﬁed. In examining the gaps,
it is important to consider the diﬀerent aspects of the business system. One of the
commonly used approaches is the four-view model (Technique 9, from Chapter 1),
because it helps to ensure that all key aspects are considered. The areas to
investigate using this model are:
Process: It is useful to begin by examining the ‘as is’ and ‘to be’
processes. Each process should be considered in turn in order to
deﬁne the revised and the new tasks, and to identify the IT
support required for them.
Technology: The IT requirements for each task can be identiﬁed from the
process models. These requirements should be documented
using a use case diagram (Technique 62), and they may also be
added to a requirements catalogue. These techniques are
described further in Chapter 6, ‘Deﬁne requirements’.
People: Once the processes have been analysed, the new actor roles
can be deﬁned. This typically involves redeﬁning the job
descriptions and the competency requirements. Each ‘to be’
process shows the tasks and the actors who should carry them
out. Collating these tasks for each actor helps to develop the
new job descriptions and create an understanding of the
Organisation: The revised business processes may require changes to the
structure of the organisation. Teams may be merged or split,
and actor roles revised. This might require changes to the
management and team structures, and these will need to be
This analysis will result in a list of change actions that need to be made in order
to bridge the gap between the current and the desired business system. The list of
actions resulting from the gap analysis will form the basis for deﬁning options for
business change. These options are then developed and evaluated. This is
discussed more fully in Chapter 5, ‘Evaluate options’.
Harmon, P. (2007) Business Process Change, 2nd edition. Morgan Kaufmann,
Porter, M. (1985) Competitive Advantage, Free Press, New York.