This step examines the opportunities for improvement observed during the previous mapping and measuring steps, and determines the causes or antecedents of process gaps and opportunities.
Figure 13.4 shows an example of the knowledge produced as a result of this step.
The best technique to determine the causes of gaps is root cause analysis through approaches such as Ishikawa diagramming. This diagramming traces problems backward until the problem’s origin is found.
 What Is Total Quality Control? ...