Use of text is everywhere. It’s what the user often enters in input fields, what gets read from files and various other data sources, and so on. Having means to convert back and forth between text and other values is an essential API capability. In addition, rich formatting capabilities are most welcome, too, helping with localization of your applications. In this section, we look at all of this, as well as at various other means to deal with text, such as regular expressions and encoding schemes.