Most modern programming languages include some form of runtime that provides common services and access to the underlying operating systems and hardware. Examples of this range from a simple functionallibrary, such as the ANSI C Runtime used by C and C++, to the rich object-oriented class libraries provided by the Java Runtime Environment.
Similar to the way that Java programs depend on the Java class libraries and virtual machine, C# programs depend on the services in the .NET Framework such as the framework class library (FCL) and the Common Language Runtime (CLR).
For a high-level overview of the FCL, see Chapter 4.
This chapter addresses the most common tasks you need to perform when building C# programs. These topics generally fall into one of two categories: leveraging functionality included in the FCL and interacting with elements of the CLR.
Certain types in the FCL are ubiquitous, in that they are fundamental to the way the FCL and CLR work and provide common functionality used throughout the entire FCL.
This section identifies some of the most common of these types and
provides guidelines to their usage. The types mentioned in this section
all exist in the
class is the root of the class hierarchy and serves as the base class
for every other class. The C#
System.Object provides a handful of useful methods that are present on all objects, ...