Cardiac Tissue Engineering

Book description


Cardiac tissue engineering aims at repairing damaged heart muscle and producing human cardiac tissues for application in drug toxicity studies. This book offers a comprehensive overview of the cardiac tissue engineering strategies, including presenting and discussing the various concepts in use, research directions and applications. Essential basic information on the major components in cardiac tissue engineering, namely cell sources and biomaterials, is firstly presented to the readers, followed by a detailed description of their implementation in different strategies, broadly divided to cellular and acellular ones. In cellular approaches, the biomaterials are used to increase cell retention after implantation or as scaffolds when bioengineering the cardiac patch, in vitro. In acellular approaches, the biomaterials are used as ECM replacement for damaged cardiac ECM after MI, or, in combination with growth factors, the biomaterials assume an additional function as a depot for prolonged factor activity for the effective recruitment of repairing cells. The book also presents technological innovations aimed to improve the quality of the cardiac patches, such as bioreactor applications, stimulation patterns and prevascularization.

This book could be of interest not only from an educational perspective (i.e. for graduate students), but also for researchers and medical professionals, to offer them fresh views on novel and powerful treatment strategies. We hope that the reader will find a broad spectrum of ideas and possibilities described in this book both interesting and convincing.

Table of Contents: Introduction / The Heart: Structure, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Regeneration / Cell Sources for Cardiac Tissue Engineering / Biomaterials: Polymers, Scaffolds, and Basic Design Criteria / Biomaterials as Vehicles for Stem Cell Delivery and Retention in the Infarct / Bioengineering of Cardiac Patches, In Vitro / Perfusion Bioreactors and Stimulation Patterns in Cardiac Tissue Engineering / Vascularization of Cardiac Patches / Acellular Biomaterials for Cardiac Repair / Biomaterial-based Controlled Delivery of Bioactive Molecules for Myocardial Regeneration

Table of contents

  1. Preface
  2. Acknowledgments
  3. Introduction
    1. Cardiac Tissue Engineering
    2. Objectives and Scopes
    3. Organization of the Monograph
    4. Bibliography
  4. The Heart—Structure, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Regeneration
    1. Introduction
    2. The Heart and Cardiac Muscle Structure
    3. Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure
    4. Cardiac Extracellular Matrix (ECM)—Its Function and Pathological Changes after MI
    5. Congenital Heart Defects
    6. Endogenous Myocardial Regeneration
    7. Potential Therapeutic Targets and Strategies to Induce Myocardial Regeneration
    8. Bibliography (1/2)
    9. Bibliography (2/2)
  5. Cell Sources for Cardiac Tissue Engineering
    1. Introduction
    2. Sources for de novo Cardiomyocytes for Clinical Applications
      1. Human Embryonic Stem Cells
      2. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
      3. Direct Reprogramming of Differentiated Somatic Cells
    3. Contemporary Alternatives—Adult Autologous Stem and Progenitor Cells
      1. Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells
      2. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells
      3. Cardiac Stem/Progenitor Cells
    4. Clinical Trials and ``Paracrine Effect'' Hypothesis of Stem/Progenitor Cell Transplantation
    5. Summary and Conclusions
    6. Bibliography
  6. Biomaterials – Polymers, Scaffolds, and Basic Design Criteria
    1. Introduction
    2. Basic Biomaterial Design Criteria
    3. Biomaterial Classification
      1. Natural Proteins
      2. Natural Polysaccharides
      3. Synthetic Peptides and Polymers
    4. Basic Scaffold Fabrication Forms
      1. Hydrogels
      2. Macroporous Scaffolds
    5. Summary and Conclusions
    6. Bibliography
  7. Biomaterials as Vehicles for Stem Cell Delivery and Retention in the Infarct
    1. Introduction
    2. Stem Cell Delivery by Biomaterials
      1. Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cells
      2. Adult Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells
      3. Adult Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells
      4. Cardiac Stem/Progenitor Cells
    3. Clinical Trials
    4. Summary and Conclusions
    5. Bibliography
  8. Bioengineering of Cardiac Patches, In Vitro
    1. Introduction
    2. Cardiac Cell Entrapment in Hydrogels—Engineered Heart Tissue (EHT)
    3. Cell Sheet-Based Cardiac Tissue Engineering
    4. Myocardial Tissue Grafts Created in Preformed Implantable Scaffolds
    5. Biomimetic Scaffolds and Integration of Cell-Matrix Interactions
    6. Micro- and Nanotechnology for Scaffold Fabrication (1/2)
    7. Micro- and Nanotechnology for Scaffold Fabrication (2/2)
    8. Summary and Conclusions
    9. Bibliography
  9. Perfusion Bioreactors and Stimulation Patterns in Cardiac Tissue Engineering
    1. Introduction
    2. Bioreactor Cultivation of Engineered Cardiac Tissue
      1. Mass Transfer in 3D Cultures
      2. Bioreactor as a Solution for Mass Transfer Challenge
      3. Perfusion Bioreactors
    3. Inductive Stimulation Patterns in Cardiac Tissue Engineering
      1. Mechanotransduction and Physical/Mechanical Stimuli
      2. Mechanical Stimulation Induced by Magnetic Field
      3. Electrical Stimulation
    4. Summary and Conclusions
    5. Bibliography
  10. Vascularization of Cardiac Patches
    1. Introduction
    2. Prevascularization of the Patch by Incorporating Endothelial Cells (ECs)
    3. The Body as a Bioreactor for Patch Vascularization
    4. Summary and Conclusions
    5. Bibliography
  11. Acellular Biomaterials for Cardiac Repair
    1. Introduction
    2. Acellular Implantable Scaffolds for in situ Tissue Support
    3. Decellularized ECM
    4. Injectable Biomaterials
      1. Injectable hydrogels based on natural or synthetic polymers
      2. Injectable Decellularized ECM Matrices
    5. First-in-Man Trial of Intracoronary Delivery of Alginate Biomaterial (1/2)
    6. First-in-Man Trial of Intracoronary Delivery of Alginate Biomaterial (2/2)
    7. Mechanism of Biomaterial Effects on Cardiac Repair
    8. Immunomodulation of the Macrophages by Liposomes for Infarct Repair
      1. Inflammation, Apoptosis, and Macrophage Response after MI
      2. PS-Presenting Liposomes as Apoptotic Cell-Mimicking Particles for Effective Immunomodulation and Infarct Repair
    9. Summary and Conclusions
    10. Bibliography (1/2)
    11. Bibliography (2/2)
  12. Biomaterial-based Controlled Delivery of Bioactive Molecules for Myocardial Regeneration
    1. Introduction
    2. Evolution of Bioactive Material Approach for Myocardial Regeneration
    3. Bioactive Molecules for Myocardial Regeneration and Repair
    4. Scaffold- and Hydrogel Sheet-Based Molecule Delivery
    5. Injectable Systems
    6. Affinity-Binding Alginate Biomaterial for Multiple Growth Factor Delivery
      1. Sulfation of Alginate Hydrogels and Analysis of Binding
      2. Bioconjugation with Alginate-Sulfate and Protein Protection from Enzymatic Proteolysis
      3. Scaffold-Based Approach Using Affinity-Binding Alginate for Multiple and Controlled Growth Factor Delivery
      4. Injectable Affinity-Binding Alginate Biomaterial (1/3)
      5. Injectable Affinity-Binding Alginate Biomaterial (2/3)
      6. Injectable Affinity-Binding Alginate Biomaterial (3/3)
    7. Summary and Conclusions
    8. Bibliography
  13. Authors' Biographies

Product information

  • Title: Cardiac Tissue Engineering
  • Author(s): Smadar Cohen, Emil Ruvinov, Yulia Sapir
  • Release date: October 2012
  • Publisher(s): Morgan & Claypool Publishers
  • ISBN: 9781608452057