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CCNA® Cisco Certified Network Associate: Study Guide, Seventh Edition by Todd Lammle

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Internetworking Models

When networks first came into being, computers could typically communicate only with computers from the same manufacturer. For example, companies ran either a complete DECnet solution or an IBM solution—not both together. In the late 1970s, the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model was created by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to break this barrier.

The OSI model was meant to help vendors create interoperable network devices and software in the form of protocols so that different vendor networks could work with each other. Like world peace, it’ll probably never happen completely, but it’s still a great goal.

The OSI model is the primary architectural model for networks. It describes ...

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