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Characterization of Optical Materials by Gregory J. Exarhos

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6

Characterization and Control of Stress in Optical Films

BRADLEY J. POND

Contents

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Origins of Stress

6.3 Techniques for Modifying or Controlling Film Stress

6.4 Stress Measurement Techniques

6.5 Future Directions

6.1    Introduction

Essentially all vacuum-deposited films are in a state of stress. In many cases the stress is high enough that it dictates the maximum thickness of a film or the combinations of materials which can be used together in making multilayer films. Film stress also limits the applications of many materials. For example, magnesium fluoride (MgF2) has many desirable properties such as a low refractive index, good durability, and a broad transparency range. However, the high tensile stress of this material ...

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