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Characterization of Organic Thin Films by Abraham Ulman

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12

Molecular Orientation in Thin Films as Probed by Optical Second Harmonic Generation

ROBERT M. CORN and DANIEL A. HIGGINS

Contents

12.1   Introduction

12.2   Experimental Considerations

12.3   Molecular Nonlinear Polarizability Calculation

12.4   Measurements of the Surface Nonlinear Susceptibility

12.5   Molecular Orientation Calculation

12.6   Absolute Molecular Orientation Measurements

12.7   Summary and Conclusions

12.1 Introduction

Optical second harmonic generation (SHG) is a nonlinear process that converts two photons of frequency ω to a single photon of frequency 2ω. In the electric dipole approximation, this process requires a noncentrosymmetric medium.1 For thin films present at the interface between two centrosymmetric media—such ...

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