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Characterization of Organic Thin Films by Abraham Ulman

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7

X-Ray Diffraction

P. DUTTA

Contents

7.1   Introduction

7.2   Basic Principles

7.3   Structure Normal to Film Plane

7.4   Structure Within the Film Plane

7.5   Summary

7.1 Introduction

An organic thin film is an artificial structure, at least in the general sense that one of its dimensions is microscopic and so the structure should differ in some way from that of the bulk material, but more specifically because the film has been made in order to generate a property that depends upon the expected molecular arrangement. A fundamental question, then, is “how are molecules actually arrange?” This is not always the same as the intended or “logical” arrangement. For example, many people lulled by diagrams of Langmuir–Blodgett films being lifted ...

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