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Chemical Process Safety, 4th Edition

Book Description

Chemical Process Safety: Learning from Case Histories, Fourth Edition gives insight into eliminating specific classes of hazards while also providing real case histories with valuable lessons to be learned. This edition also includes practical sections on mechanical integrity, management of change, and incident investigation programs, along with a list of helpful resources.

The information contained in this book will help users stay up-to-date on all the latest OSHA requirements, including the OSHA-required Management of Change, Mechanical Integrity, and Incident Investigation regulations. Learn how to eliminate hazards in the design, operation, and maintenance of chemical process plants and petroleum refineries.

World-renowned expert in process safety, Roy Sanders, shows how to reduce risks in plants and refineries, including a summary of case histories from high profile disasters and recommendations for how to avoid repeating the same mistakes. Following the principles outlined in this text will help save lives and reduce loss.

  • Features additional new chapters covering safety culture, maintaining a sense of vulnerability, and additional learning opportunities from recent incidents and near misses
  • Contains updated information from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and the National Safety Council, with concise summaries of some of the most important case histories of the twenty-first century
  • Includes significantly expanded information from the US Chemical Safety Board, US OSHA, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
  • Provides a completely updated chapter to guide readers to a wealth of reference material available on the web and elsewhere

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. 1: Perspective, perspective, perspective
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. The media rarely focuses on the benefits of the chemical industry
    4. A glance at the history of chemical manufacturing before the industrial revolution
    5. The modern industrial chemical industry modifies our way of living
    6. Risks are not necessarily how they are perceived
    7. Natural pesticides
    8. Plant employee safety versus life-style choices
    9. The chemical industry’s excellent safety record
    10. Who has the most dangerous jobs?
    11. What events resulted in fatal occupational injuries in 2012?
    12. Just how dangerous is it to work in a US chemical plant?
    13. How are the chemical and refinery industries doing today when it comes to major losses? And what should we do in the future?
    14. Process safety culture
  8. 2: Good intentions
    1. Abstract
    2. Modifications made with good intentions
    3. A tank truck catastrophically fails
    4. Siphoning destroys a tender tank
    5. Tank roof splits from overfilling
    6. A well-intended change yields a storage tank collapse
    7. A water drain line is altered and a reactor explodes
    8. An air system is improved and a vessel blows up
    9. A new air system improved economics, but jeopardized safety
    10. Another incident with nitrogen backup for a compressed air supply
    11. The hazards of nitrogen asphyxiation
    12. Concerns for safety on a refrigerated ethylene tank
    13. Beware of impurities, stabilizers, or substitute chemicals
    14. Good intentions on certain new protection systems lead to troubles
    15. A gas compressor is protected from dirt, but the plant catches fire
    16. A replacement check valve installed – one detail overlooked
    17. What was one of the immediate causes of the fire?
    18. What did investigators recommend?
    19. Another good intentions project: new tanks are destroyed and the neighborhood is disrupted
    20. Another tragic incident involving hydrogen sulfide takes the lives of two workers
    21. Closing thoughts on sewers
    22. Carbon absorption incidents show history repeats
    23. The lighter side
    24. A review of good intentions
  9. 3: Focusing on water and steam: the ever-present and sometimes evil twins
    1. Abstract
    2. Hydro-test goes awry
    3. A flooded column collapses as water is being drained from the system
    4. Water reacting with strong chemicals
    5. Easy-to-use steam heat can push equipment beyond safe design limits
    6. Heating water in a confined system
    7. Steam condenses and a mega-vessel is destroyed during commissioning
    8. A tragedy develops when hot oil is pumped upon a layer of water
    9. Discussion and recommendations
  10. 4: Major US incidents in the twenty-first century: Some folks thirst for recent case histories
    1. Abstract
    2. Unfortunately – there is often a certain sameness in process incidents
    3. Delaware City, Delaware, incident
    4. Rouseville, Pennsylvania, incident
    5. Buffalo, New York, incident
    6. Learning opportunities from major incidents in the twenty-first century
    7. President Obama signs an Executive Order relating to process safety management
    8. An explosion in a plastics manufacturing facility in Illinois results in five deaths, plant closure and eventual tear down of the facility
    9. A glimpse of the PVC plastic facility, the loss of life and property
    10. PVC reactor layout and most likely incident scenario
    11. Not learning from incidents
    12. Key findings on the Illiopolis PVC plant incident
    13. The CSB recommendations submitted to Formosa Plastics USA [8]
    14. The March 2005 Texas City, Texas, refinery incident – the most tragic US refinery accident of the decade
    15. Besides poor safety culture – what happened prior to the release?
    16. What happened immediately after the release?
    17. Besides poor safety culture – what are some key technical findings of the Chemical Safety Board?
    18. Besides poor safety culture – what are some key organizational findings of the Chemical Safety Board?
    19. BP shares their investigation findings on key issues
    20. BP Texas City violations and settlement agreements
    21. An independent blue ribbon panel investigates BP’s North American operations
    22. A foreword on the findings published by the Baker Panel – broadens the impact
    23. The summary of the Baker Panel findings
    24. Corporate safety culture
    25. Refinery tragedy in Anacortes, Washington
    26. Introduction to the Anacortes refinery incident
    27. Details on the Tesoro refinery incident
    28. Why the catastrophic rupture? The technical focus
    29. Other Chemical Safety Board findings
    30. The CSB video “Tesoro Tragedy – Behind the Curve”
    31. CSB sweeping game changing recommendations for the US environmental agency
    32. CSB recommendations for the State of Washington
    33. CSB recommendations for the American Petroleum Institute
    34. The Washington Department of Labor and Industries issues citations
    35. Ammonium nitrate catastrophe in West, Texas April 17, 2013 – fifteen perish
    36. Major incidents in the twenty-first century
  11. 5: Two highly destructive twenty-first century vapor cloud explosions: one in the United Kingdom and the other in Venezuela: Two massive explosion incidents with some significant similarities
    1. Abstract
    2. Buncefield UK fuel storage and transfer depot explosion and fires 2005
    3. Introduction to the Buncefield incident and impact in the area
    4. A look at some details prior to the explosion and massive fire
    5. The economic costs of the Buncefield incident
    6. Fuel concerns after the explosion and fires
    7. Instrumentation and control systems
    8. Buncefield report recommendations
    9. Recommendations for design and operation of fuel storage sites
    10. Summary comments on the Buncefield incident
    11. A catastrophic explosion at Amuay refinery in Venezuela
    12. Immediate events leading up to the explosion
    13. A closer look a details at the Amuay refinery incident
    14. Petroleos de Venezuela (or PDVSA) leak source study
    15. RMG presented their view promptly after the incident
    16. “The Economist” speaks to some underlying issues
    17. The Manufacturing Center in Energy orientation (COENER) report
    18. One strongly critical media report speaks about the Amuay refinery operations
    19. The Amuay refinery based upon an insurance report
    20. Blunt recommendations by the Manufacturing Center in Energy
    21. Conclusions and recommendations for the Amuay disaster
    22. Vapor cloud explosions – closing comments
    23. When it comes to vapor clouds what can you do?
  12. 6: Preparation for maintenance
    1. Abstract
    2. Some problems when preparing for maintenance
    3. A tank vent is routed to a water-filled drum to “Avoid” problems
    4. Preparing to paint large tanks
    5. Preparing a brine sludge dissolving system for maintenance
    6. What happened in the brine system?
    7. A violent eruption from a tank being prepared for maintenance
    8. An explosion while preparing to replace a valve in an ice cream plant
    9. A chemical cleaning operation kills sparrows, but improves procedures
    10. Other cleaning, washing, steaming, and purging operations
    11. A tragedy when preparing for valve maintenance
    12. A review of changes made to prepare for maintenance
  13. 7: Maintenance-induced accidents and process piping problems
    1. Abstract
    2. Planning and communication
    3. Repaired reboiler passes the hydro-test and later creates a fire
    4. A tank explodes during welding repairs after passing a flammable gas test
    5. A phenol tank’s roof lifts as repairs are made
    6. Catastrophic failures of storage tanks as reported by the Environmental Protection Agency
    7. Hot work on tank catwalk results in a contractor’s death, injuries, and a costly off-site environmental insult
    8. Sulfuric acid tank background basics
    9. Unsafe condition report and hot work permit shortcomings
    10. The management of change shortcomings in sulfuric acid tank incident
    11. Root causes as defined by the CSB
    12. Similar tragic incidents involving hot work to tanks provided within the CSB full report Delaware City
    13. The Chemical Safety Board offers safety advice on Hot Work within a 14 min video
    14. Another tank explosion during maintenance hot work
    15. Repair activity to a piping spool results in a massive leak from a sphere
    16. The Phillips 66 incident: tragedy in Pasadena, Texas
    17. A massive fire, BLEVEs, and $5 million damages after a mechanic improperly removes a valve actuator
    18. Misdirected precautions on a reactor system isolation plug valve result in a vapor cloud explosion
    19. A hidden blind surprises the operators
    20. Poor judgment by mechanics allowed a bad steam leak to result in a minor explosion
    21. The Flixborough disaster and the lessons we should never forget
    22. Do piping systems contribute to major accidents?
    23. Beware of other piping issues
    24. Specific piping system problems reported as major incidents
    25. Four case histories of catastrophic pipe failures
    26. An 8-in. pipeline ruptures and an explosion occurs – December 24, 1989
    27. Piping problems review
    28. Concluding thoughts on maintenance – induced accidents and process piping problems
  14. 8: One-minute modifications: small, quick changes in a plant can create bad memories
    1. Abstract
    2. Explosion occurs after an analyzer is repaired
    3. When cooling methods were changed, a tragedy occurred
    4. Instrument air backup is disconnected
    5. A furnace temperature safeguard is altered
    6. It appeared to be icicles hanging in a small plant
    7. Another costly gasket error
    8. While compressed asbestos gaskets are phased out, other leaks will occur
    9. Other piping gasket substitution problems
    10. New stud bolts fail unexpectedly
    11. A “Repaired” hose fails triggering a major fire
    12. Hurricane procedures are improperly applied to a tank conservation vent lid
    13. Painters create troubles
    14. Pipefitters can create troubles when reinstalling relief valves
    15. Another pipefitter’s error
    16. Lack of respect for an open vent as a vacuum-relief device results in a partial tank collapse
    17. Just a bucket of water destroys a tank
    18. Lack of respect for an open vent as a pressure-relief device costs two lives
    19. One-minute modifications review
  15. 9: Accidents involving compressors, hoses, and pumps
    1. Abstract
    2. Reciprocating compressors
    3. A piece of compressor water jacket is launched
    4. The misuse of hoses can quickly create problems
    5. The Chemical Safety Board investigates a chlorine unloading hose failure
    6. The Chemical Safety Board investigated a phosgene hose failure with a fatality
    7. Fatality from a ruptured hose in HF service
    8. Hose mishaps frequently lead to loss of containment – maybe more than we think
    9. The water hose at the Flixborough disaster
    10. Hoses used to warm equipment
    11. Three-Mile Island Incident involved a hose
    12. The Bhopal Tragedy was initiated by use of a hose
    13. Improper purge hose set up for maintenance creates major problems
    14. High-pressure hydrogen inadvertently backs into the nitrogen system and an explosion occurs
    15. A nitric acid delivery to the wrong tank makes front-page news
    16. How do you prevent such an incident?
    17. Other truck delivery incidents
    18. An operator averts a sulfuric acid unloading tragedy
    19. Hoses cannot take excessive abuse
    20. What is the advice from practitioners?
    21. Centrifugal pumps
    22. River water pump piping explodes
    23. Severe pump explosions surprise employees
    24. A large condensate pump explodes
    25. Closing thoughts on pump explosions. Courtesy of the “Beacon”
    26. Afterthoughts
  16. 10: Failure to use, consult, or understand specifications
    1. Abstract
    2. Lack of well-defined, rigid operating instructions cost $100,000 in property damages
    3. Other thoughts on fired heaters
    4. Low-pressure tank fabrication specifications were not followed
    5. Explosion relief for low-pressure tanks
    6. Tinkering with pressured vessel-closure bolts ends with a harmless bang
    7. Piping specifications were not utilized
    8. Pump repairs potentially endanger the plant, but are corrected in time to prevent newspaper headlines
    9. Plastic pumps installed to pump flammable liquids
    10. Weak walls wanted – but alternate attachments contributed to the damage
  17. 11: “Imagine If” modifications and practical problem solving
    1. Abstract
    2. “Imagine If” modifications – let us not exaggerate the dangers as we perform safety studies
    3. New fire-fighting agent meets opposition – “Could Kill Men as Well as Fires”
    4. A process safety management quiz
    5. New fiber production methods questioned
    6. Practical problem solving
    7. The physics student and his mischievous methods
  18. 12: The role of mechanical integrity in chemical process safety
    1. Abstract
    2. Mechanical integrity in a chemical plant
    3. A regulatory view of mechanical integrity
    4. Mechanical integrity programs must be tailored to the specific site
    5. Mechanical integrity in design and installation
    6. Equipment covered by mechanical integrity
    7. Regulatory enforcement of mechanical integrity
    8. What is all this about RAGAGEP?
    9. Struggling with mechanical integrity
    10. Written procedures and training
    11. Classification of equipment by hazard potential
    12. Mechanical integrity programs for pumps/compressors
    13. Mechanical integrity programs for piping, pressure vessels, storage tanks, and process piping
    14. Inspecting pressure vessels, storage tanks, and piping
    15. Inspection of pressure vessels and storage tanks
    16. Mechanical programs for safety-critical instruments and safety relief valves
    17. The critical role of safety relief valves
    18. “In-house” testing safety relief valves
    19. Mechanical integrity program for process safety interlocks and alarms
    20. Protective process safety interlocks at a DuPont plant
    21. Another company – a different emphasis on safety critical instrument systems
    22. Another approach – prooftesting at a Louisiana plant
    23. Additional information on mechanical integrity
  19. 13: Effectively managing change within the chemical industry
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Preliminary thoughts on managing change
    4. Are management of change systems like snowflakes?
    5. A reality check provided by previous chapters
    6. Keeping MOC systems simple
    7. Losing tribal knowledge
    8. Some historical approaches to plant changes
    9. The US OSHA PSM Standard addresses “management of change”
    10. Principles of an effective management of change system that prevents uncontrolled change and satisfies OSHA
    11. An overall process description to create or improve a management of change system
    12. Clear definitions are imperative
    13. Key steps for an effective management of change system for a medium or large organization
    14. Key steps for an effective management of change system for a small company
    15. Multidisciplined committee can provide an in-depth look when identifying hazards
    16. Operational variances for maintenance need a close examination too
    17. Variances, exceptions, and special cases of change
    18. Should the MOC system be paperless?
    19. Over two dozen plants share their MOC practices
    20. Management of change approvals, documentation, and auditing
    21. Closing thoughts on management of change policy
    22. The Center for Chemical Process Safety
    23. Recommendations and regulations after 1988
  20. 14: Investigating and sharing near misses and unfortunate accidents
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. What does the regulation say about incident investigations?
    4. Plant cultures can affect investigations
    5. More guidelines on the culture of incident reporting
    6. An OSHA program coordinator’s view
    7. Layers of incident causes
    8. A furnace tube failure case history is revisited
    9. Process safety incident investigation techniques
    10. Applying root cause analysis
    11. Some chemical manufacturers’ approaches to incident investigation
    12. What is a root cause?
    13. STAMP – a new accident causality model
    14. Some thoughts on process safety incident investigation techniques
    15. Complying with the OSHA element on incident investigation
    16. Report approval, report distribution, sharing the findings, corrective action tracking, and report retention
    17. Conclusions
  21. 15: Keep a sense of vulnerability for safety sake: seven recommendations for keeping a sense of vulnerability at your chemical processing or refining site
    1. Abstract
    2. Opening thoughts on unease and who should it impact
    3. How do you create a sense of unease or vulnerability?
    4. A focused effort is essential
    5. Success can blind us of reality
    6. Seven recommendations to reduce your vulnerability
    7. Why not step back in time?
  22. 16: A strong safety culture is essential: it is essential to develop a strong safety culture
    1. Abstract
    2. Process safety culture has been recognized and accepted in recent years
    3. Foundation for development of safety culture
    4. About 65 companies shared to shape the earlier definition of “Safety Culture” in 2003
    5. What is process safety culture? Perhaps – it is the root cause of the decade!
    6. A dozen features essential to developing a durable safety culture within PSM
    7. API RP 754 describes the “Purpose of Indicators” as [17]
    8. Is safety culture really important?
  23. 17: Sources of helpful information for practicing chemical process safety
    1. Abstract
    2. Key cost free process safety resources at your finger tips
    3. Process safety resources via consultants, professional associations and trade associations via the web
    4. Excellent books addressing chemical process safety – from a process engineer’s viewpoint
    5. Two of the best process safety videos which focus on learning from case histories
  24. Index