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Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications, Fourth Edition

Book Description

The #1 Process Safety Guide, Now Extensively Updated for Current Industrial Processes, Systems, and Practices

Process safety has seen a dramatic consolidation of concepts in the past few years. Chemical Process Safety, Fourth Edition, provides students and working engineers with the understanding necessary to apply these new concepts to safely design and operate any process.

Long the definitive guide in the field, this edition fully reflects major recent advances in process safety technology and practice. Readers will find extensive new and updated coverage of relief sizing, hazards identification, risk assessment, and many other topics. Several chapters have been completely rewritten, and all are substantially modified. This textbook includes 50 new problems and solutions (mostly in SI units), and 25 new case histories.

  • Safety culture
  • Preventive and mitigative safeguards
  • The CCPS 20 elements of Risk Based Process Safety (RBPS)
  • Toxicology, industrial hygiene, and source models
  • Hazardous material dispersion
  • Fires, explosions, and concepts for preventing them
  • Chemical reactivity
  • Reliefs and relief sizing
  • Hazards identification and evaluation
  • Risk analysis and assessment, including Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA)
  • Safety strategies, procedures, designs, case histories, and lessons learned

Crowl and Louvar link key academic concepts to modern industrial practice, making this guide invaluable for all engineering students and for all working engineers.

Register your product for convenient access to downloads, updates, and/or corrections as they become available. See inside book for details.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. About This eBook
  3. Half-Title Page
  4. Title Page
  5. Copyright Page
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
    1. Acknowledgments
  8. About the Authors
  9. Nomenclature
  10. Chapter 1. Introduction
    1. 1-1 Engineering Ethics
    2. 1-2 Myths about Process Safety
    3. 1-3 Safety Culture
    4. 1-4 Individual Risk, Societal Risk, and Risk Populations
    5. 1-5 Voluntary and Involuntary Risk
    6. 1-6 Safety Metrics
    7. 1-7 Accident and Loss Statistics
    8. 1-8 Risk Perception
    9. 1-9 Risk Tolerance/Acceptance and Risk Matrix
    10. 1-10 Codes, Standards, and Regulations
    11. 1-11 Safeguards
    12. 1-12 The CCPS 20 Elements of Risk-Based Process Safety
    13. 1-13 Inherently Safer Design
    14. 1-14 The Worst Chemical Plant Tragedy: Bhopal, India, 1984
    15. 1-15 Overview of Chemical Process Safety
    16. Suggested Reading
    17. Problems
  11. Chapter 2. Toxicology
    1. 2-1 How Toxicants Enter the Body
    2. 2-2 How Toxicants Are Eliminated from the Body
    3. 2-3 Effects of Toxicants on the Body
    4. 2-4 Toxicological Studies
    5. 2-5 Dose versus Response
    6. 2-6 Dose and Response Using Probit Equation
    7. 2-7 Relative Toxicity
    8. 2-8 Threshold Limit Values
    9. Online Resources
    10. Suggested Reading
    11. Problems
  12. Chapter 3. Industrial Hygiene
    1. 3-1 Anticipating and Identifying Hazardous Workplace Exposures
    2. 3-2 Globally Harmonized System
    3. 3-3 Evaluate the Magnitude of Exposures and Responses
    4. 3-4 Develop and Evaluate Control Techniques to Prevent Exposures
    5. 3-5 National Fire Protection Association Diamond
    6. Online Resources
    7. Suggested Reading
    8. Problems
  13. Chapter 4. Source Models
    1. 4-1 Introduction to Source Models
    2. 4-2 Flow of Liquid through a Hole
    3. 4-3 Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank
    4. 4-4 Flow of Liquids through Pipes
    5. 4-5 Flow of Gases or Vapors through Holes
    6. 4-6 Flow of Gases or Vapors through Pipes
    7. 4-7 Flashing Liquids
    8. 4-8 Liquid Pool Evaporation or Boiling
    9. 4-9 Realistic and Worst-Case Releases
    10. 4-10 Conservative Analysis
    11. Suggested Reading
    12. Problems
  14. Chapter 5. Hazardous Material Dispersion
    1. 5-1 Parameters Affecting Dispersion
    2. 5-2 Neutrally Buoyant Dispersion Models
    3. 5-3 Pasquill–Gifford Model
    4. 5-4 Dense Gas Dispersion
    5. 5-5 Toxic Effect Criteria
    6. 5-6 Release Prevention and Mitigation
    7. Suggested Reading
    8. Problems
  15. Chapter 6. Fires and Explosions
    1. 6-1 The Fire Triangle
    2. 6-2 Distinction between Fires and Explosions
    3. 6-3 Definitions
    4. 6-4 Flammability Characteristics of Liquids and Vapors
    5. 6-5 Flammability Characteristics of Dusts
    6. 6-6 Sprays and Mists
    7. 6-7 Ignition Energy
    8. 6-8 Ignition Sources
    9. 6-9 Experimental Characterization of Gas/Vapor and Dust Explosions
    10. 6-10 Explosions
    11. Suggested Reading
    12. Problems
  16. Chapter 7. Concepts to Prevent Fires and Explosions
    1. 7-1 Inerting
    2. 7-2 Static Electricity
    3. 7-3 Controlling Static Electricity
    4. 7-4 Explosion-Proof Equipment and Instruments
    5. 7-5 Ventilation
    6. 7-6 Sprinkler Systems
    7. 7-7 Industry’s Fire and Explosion Protection Strategy
    8. Suggested Reading
    9. Problems
  17. Chapter 8. Chemical Reactivity
    1. 8-1 Background Understanding
    2. 8-2 Commitment, Awareness, and Identification of Reactive Chemical Hazards
    3. 8-3 Characterization of Reactive Chemical Hazards Using Calorimeters
    4. 8-4 Controlling Reactive Hazards
    5. Suggested Reading
    6. Problems
  18. Chapter 9. Introduction to Reliefs
    1. 9-1 Relief Concepts
    2. 9-2 Definitions
    3. 9-3 Code Requirements
    4. 9-4 Relief System Design
    5. 9-5 Relief Types and Characteristics
    6. 9-6 Relief Installation Practices
    7. 9-7 Relief Effluent Handling
    8. Suggested Reading
    9. Problems
  19. Chapter 10. Relief Sizing
    1. 10-1 Set Pressure and Accumulation Limits for Reliefs
    2. 10-2 Relief Sizing for Liquid Service
    3. 10-3 Relief Sizing for Vapor and Gas Service
    4. 10-4 Two-Phase Flow during Runaway Reaction Relief
    5. 10-5 Deflagration Venting for Dust and Vapor Explosions
    6. 10-6 Venting for Fires External to the Process
    7. 10-7 Reliefs for Thermal Expansion of Process Fluids
    8. Suggested Reading
    9. Problems
  20. Chapter 11. Hazards Identification and Evaluation
    1. 11-1 Introduction to Hazard Identification/Evaluation and Risk Analysis
    2. 11-2 Non-Scenario-Based Hazard Identification/Evaluation Methods
    3. 11-3 Scenario-Based Hazard Identification/Evaluation Methods
    4. 11-4 Documentation and Actions Required for Hazard Identification and Evaluation
    5. Problems
  21. Chapter 12. Risk Analysis and Assessment
    1. 12-1 Review of Probability Theory
    2. 12-2 Event Trees
    3. 12-3 Fault Trees
    4. 12-4 Bow-Tie Diagrams
    5. 12-5 Quantitative Risk Analysis
    6. 12-6 Layer of Protection Analysis
    7. 12-7 Risk Assessment
    8. Suggested Reading
    9. Problems
  22. Chapter 13. Safety Strategies, Procedures, and Designs
    1. 13-1 Process Safety Strategies
    2. 13-2 Safe Operating Procedures
    3. 13-3 Safe Work Practices
    4. 13-4 Designs for Process Safety
    5. 13-5 Designs for Runaway Reactions
    6. 13-6 Designs and Practices for the Safe Handling of Dusts
    7. Suggested Reading
    8. Problems
  23. Chapter 14. Case Histories and Lessons Learned
    1. 14-1 Process Safety Culture
    2. 14-2 Compliance with Standards
    3. 14-3 Process Safety Competency
    4. 14-4 Workplace Involvement
    5. 14-5 Stakeholder Outreach
    6. 14-6 Process Knowledge Management
    7. 14-7 Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis
    8. 14-8 Operating Procedures
    9. 14-9 Safe Work Practices
    10. 14-10 Asset Integrity and Reliability
    11. 14-11 Contractor Management
    12. 14-12 Training and Performance Assurance
    13. 14-13 Management of Change
    14. 14-14 Operational Readiness
    15. 14-15 Conduct of Operations
    16. 14-16 Emergency Management
    17. 14-17 Incident Investigation
    18. 14-18 Measurement and Metrics
    19. 14-19 Auditing
    20. 14-20 Management Review and Continuous Improvement
    21. 14-21 Summary
    22. Suggested Reading
    23. Problems
  24. Appendix A. Unit Conversion Constants
  25. Appendix B. Flammability Data for Selected Hydrocarbons
  26. Appendix C. Saturation Vapor Pressure Data
  27. Appendix D. Special Types of Reactive Chemicals
  28. Appendix E. Hazardous Chemicals Data for a Variety of Chemical Substances
  29. Appendix F. Process Diagrams
  30. Index