Chapter 6. Eleven Remarkable Foreigners in China

No one really knows how many foreigners live in China. Official government statistics say 593,832 foreigners were living in China as of 2011.1 Nonofficial sources place the number at a million or higher.2 Even the higher number is miniscule compared with the 1.3 billion Chinese, however. And yet a small but important number of foreigners have done well in China, to the point where they have made an impact on Chinese society while prospering themselves.

Given the importance of guan xi (connections) in China, the difficulties of the language, culture, regulatory environment, and unfamiliar legal and government structure, it may seem surprising that any foreigners have done well in China. Indeed, ...

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