Cinematography: Theory and Practice, 4th Edition

Book description

This book covers both the artistry and craftsmanship of cinematography and visual storytelling. Few art forms are as tied to their tools and technology as is cinematography. Take your mastery of these new tools, techniques, and roles to the next level with this cutting-edge roadmap from author and filmmaker Blain Brown.

Table of contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Introduction
  6. The Website
  7. Contents
  8. 01 Writing with Motion
    1. Writing with Motion
      1. Building a World
      2. The Visual Language of Cinematography
      3. Storytelling with Light
      4. Defining the Frame
      5. The Lens and Space
      6. Perspective
      7. Light and Color
      8. Movement
      9. Camera Angle
      10. Information
      11. Detective POV
      12. Visual Texture
      13. Visual Metaphor
      14. Naturalism vs Stylized
    2. Putting It All Together
  9. 02 The Frame
    1. More Than Just a Picture
    2. Principles of Composition
      1. Unity
      2. Balance
      3. Rhythm
      4. Proportion
      5. Contrast
      6. Texture
      7. Directionality
      8. The Three-Dimensional Field
      9. Creating Depth
      10. Relative Size
      11. Linear Perspective
      12. Atmospheric Perspective
    3. Forces of Visual Organization
      1. The Line
      2. Compositional Triangles
      3. Horizontals, Verticals, and Diagonals
      4. The Power of the Edge
      5. Frame Within a Frame
      6. Positive and Negative Space
      7. Movement in the Visual Field
      8. The Rule of Thirds
    4. Rules of Composition for People
      1. Headroom
      2. Noseroom
      3. Other Guidelines
      4. Lens Height
      5. Dutch Tilt
    5. Aspect Ratios
  10. 03 Language of the Lens
    1. The Lens in Storytelling
    2. Foreground/Midground/Background
      1. Lens Perspective
      2. The Lens and Space
      3. Compression of Space
      4. Selective Focus
      5. Flare/Glare
  11. 04 Continuity
    1. Continuity
      1. Shooting For Editing
      2. Thinking about Continuity
    2. Types of Continuity
      1. Continuity of Content
      2. Continuity of Movement
      3. Continuity of Position
      4. Continuity of Time
    3. The Prime Directive
      1. The Action Axis
      2. Screen Direction
      3. These Are the Rules—But Why?
    4. Screen Direction
      1. What Establishes the Line?
      2. The Purpose of Screen Direction
      3. Directional Conventions
      4. Exceptions to the Rule
      5. Reverse
      6. Turnaround
      7. Planning Coverage
    5. Cuttability
      1. The 20% and 30 Degree Rules
      2. Moving Shots
      3. Chase Scenes
      4. Going Through a Door
      5. Entering and Exiting Frame
      6. Neutral Axis to Exit Frame
      7. Prop Continuity in Coverage
      8. Eye Sweeps
      9. Group Shots
      10. Cutaway Eyeline Continuity
      11. Eyelines in Over-the-Shoulder Coverage
      12. Eyelines for a Seated Character
  12. 05 Shooting Methods
    1. What Is Cinematic?
      1. A Question of Perception
      2. The Frame
    2. Static Frame
    3. Camera Angles
    4. The Shots: Building Blocks of a Scene
      1. Wide Shot
      2. Establishing Shots
      3. Character Shots
      4. Full Shot
      5. Two Shot
      6. Medium Shot
      7. Close-ups
      8. Over-the-Shoulder
      9. Cutaways
      10. Reaction Shots
      11. Inserts
      12. Connecting Shots
      13. Reveals
      14. Pickups
      15. Transitional Shots
    5. Invisible Technique
    6. Involving The Audience: POV
      1. The Fourth Wall and POV
    7. The Shooting Methods
      1. The Master Scene Method
    8. The Master Scene Method
    9. In-One and Developing Master
    10. The Developing Master
    11. Freeform Method
    12. Overlapping or Triple-Take Method
    13. Walk and Talk
    14. Montage
    15. Establishing the Geography
    16. Introductions
      1. The Time
      2. The Characters
    17. Other Editorial Issues In Shooting
      1. Jump Cuts
    18. Types of Edits
      1. The Action Cut
      2. The POV Cut
      3. The Match Cut
      4. The Invisible Cut
  13. 06 Cameras
    1. The Digital Signal Path
      1. Digital Signal Processor
      2. HD Recording
      3. UHD
    2. RAW vs. Baked In
      1. RAW Camera Signal Path
      2. Viewing Stream
      3. Definitions
    3. Digital Negative
      1. Chroma Subsampling
    4. Pixels
      1. Resolution
      2. Photosites
      3. Pixels and Photosites Are Not the Same Thing!
    5. Digitizing
    6. OLPF
    7. Digital Sensors
      1. CCD
      2. CMOS
      3. 3-Chip
      4. Making Color from Black-and-White
      5. Bayer Filter
      6. Demosaicing/DeBayering
      7. What Color Is Your Sensor?
    8. How Many Pixels Is Enough?
      1. Shooting Resolution
    9. Shutters
      1. Spinning Mirror
      2. Rolling Shutter and Global Shutter
    10. Sensor Size and Depth-of-Field
    11. ISO in Digital Cameras
    12. Noise
    13. IR and Hot Mirror Filters
      1. Bit Depth
      2. Frame Rates
      3. The Film Look vs. The Video Look
  14. 07 Measuring Digital
    1. The Waveform Monitor
      1. External Sync
      2. Types of Display
    2. Color Bars In Detail
      1. Using the PLUGE in Monitor Calibration
      2. Monitor Probes
      3. Legal and Valid
    3. The Vectorscope
    4. Hue/Phase
    5. Using the Vectorscope On the Set
      1. Color Bars On the Vectorscope
      2. White Balance/Black Balance
      3. Gamut
    6. Video Test Cards
      1. The Deceptively Simple Neutral Gray Card
      2. Why Isn’t 18% Gray Also 50%?
    7. Calibration Test Charts
      1. DSC Labs Test Charts
      2. The One Shot
      3. The X-Rite ColorChecker
      4. ChromaMatch & ScreenAlign
      5. Skin Tone
      6. Measuring Image Resolution
  15. 08 Exposure
    1. Exposure Theory
      1. What Do We Want Exposure to Do for Us?
      2. Controlling Exposure
      3. Change the Bucket
    2. The Elements of Exposure
      1. Light
      2. F/Stops
      3. Shutter Speed/Frame Rate/Shutter Angle
    3. The Response Curve
      1. Underexposure
      2. Overexposure
      3. Correct Exposure
      4. Higher Brightness Range in the Scene
    4. Two Types of Exposure
      1. How Film and Video Are Different
      2. We’ll Fix It in Post
      3. The Bottom Line
      4. Exposure in Shooting RAW Video
      5. Digital Exposure
    5. The Tools of Exposure
      1. The Incident Meter
      2. The Reflectance Meter
    6. A Different World of Exposure
      1. Setting Exposure with the Waveform Monitor
      2. F/Stops On the Waveform
      3. The 18% Solution
    7. Exposure Indicators in The Camera
      1. Zebras
      2. Histogram
      3. Traffic Lights and Goal Posts
      4. False Color Exposure Display
      5. Arri Alexa False Colors
    8. Strategies of Exposure
      1. Don’t Let It Clip, but Avoid the Noise
      2. Texture & Detail
      3. The Dilemma
    9. Using Light Meters
      1. Meter the Key
    10. Using the Waveform Monitor
      1. Placing Middle Gray
      2. Start at the Bottom or Start at the Top
      3. Expose to the Right
    11. Zebras
    12. The Monitor
      1. Know Thyself and Know Thy Camera
      2. Blackmagic Camera Exposure Advice
  16. 09 Linear, Gamma, Log
    1. Dynamic Range
    2. Linear Response
      1. An Ideal and a Problem
      2. Linear as Scene Referred
      3. The Classic S-Curve In the Image
    3. Film Gamma and Video Gamma
      1. Video Gamma
      2. The Coincidence
    4. Rec.709 and Rec. 2020
      1. The Rec.709 Transfer Function
      2. Rec. 2020
      3. Studio Swing Levels, Full Range and Legal Video
    5. The Code 100 Problem
      1. Hypergamma/Cinegamma/Film Rec
      2. Sony Hypergamma terminology
      3. Gamma in RAW Video
    6. The Inefficiency of Linear
    7. Log Encoding
      1. Brief History of Log
      2. Superwhite
      3. What You See Is Not What You Get
      4. Log and RAW—Two Different Things
    8. Proprietary Log Curves
      1. Sony S-Log
      2. Arri Log C
      3. Canon-Log
      4. Panalog
      5. RedCode
      6. Red Log
    9. 18% Gray In Log
      1. Variation in Log Curves
  17. 10 Color
    1. Color Terminology
      1. Color Temperature: The Balances
      2. Warm and Cool
      3. White Balance, Black Balance, and Black Shading
      4. Magenta vs. Green
    2. The CIE Diagram
    3. Gamut
    4. Video Color Spaces
      1. Rec.709 and Rec. 2020
      2. DCI P3
    5. AMPAS ACES Color Space
    6. The Matrix
    7. Color Balance with Gels and Filters
      1. Conversion Gels
      2. Light Balancing Gels
      3. Color Correction Gels
    8. Correcting Off-Color Lights
      1. HMI
      2. Industrial Lamps
      3. Color as a Storytelling Tool
      4. Film Color Palettes
  18. 11 Image Control
    1. Getting the Look You Want
    2. At the DIT Cart
      1. What Happens At the Cart
    3. Color Correction and Color Grading
      1. Lift/Shadows
      2. Gamma/Midtones
      3. Gain/Highlights
      4. Curves
    4. Log Controls
      1. Log Offset Color and Master Controls
      2. Exporting and Reusing Grades
    5. LUTs And Looks
      1. 1D LUTS
      2. 3D LUTS
      3. LUTs and Looks: What’s the Difference?
    6. Controlling the Image in Front of the Lens
      1. Diffusion and Effects Filters
      2. Camera Lens Filters for Color Correction
      3. Warming and Cooling Filters
      4. Contrast Control in Black-And-White
      5. Polarizers
      6. IR Filters
  19. 12 Lighting Sources
    1. The Tools of Lighting
    2. Color Balance
      1. Color Rendering Index
    3. Daylight/Tungsten Sources
    4. LED Lights
      1. Remote Phosphor LEDs
    5. HMI Units
    6. Xenons
    7. Tungsten Lights
      1. Fresnels
    8. Open Face
    9. PARs
    10. Soft Lights
      1. Barger Baglights
    11. Color-Correct Fluorescents
    12. Other Types of Units
      1. SoftSun
      2. Cycs, Strips, Nooks, and Broads
      3. Chinese Lanterns and Spacelights
      4. Self-Contained Crane Rigs
      5. Ellipsoidal Reflector Spots
      6. Balloon Lights
      7. Handheld Units
    13. Equipment for Day Exteriors
    14. Improvising Lights
      1. Box Lights
      2. Christmas Tree Lights
      3. Projector Bulbs
    15. For More Information On Lighting
  20. 13 Lighting
    1. The Fundamentals of Lighting
    2. The [conceptual] Tools of Lighting
      1. The Attributes of Light
      2. Hard vs. Soft
    3. What are the Goals of Good Lighting?
      1. Full Range of Tones
      2. Color Control and Color Balance
      3. Shape
      4. Separation
      5. Depth
      6. Texture
      7. Mood and Tone
      8. Shadows
      9. Reveal and Conceal
    4. Exposure and Lighting
    5. Some Lighting Terminology
    6. Working with Hard Light and Soft Light
      1. Hard Light
      2. Soft Light
      3. Direction
      4. Avoiding Flat Front Lighting
      5. Light from the Upstage Side
      6. Backlight and Kicker
      7. Intensity
      8. Texture in Lighting
      9. Color
    7. Lighting Techniques
      1. Ambient
      2. Classical Lighting
      3. Bringing it through the windows
      4. Practicals and Motivated Lighting
    8. Basic Principles of Lighting
      1. Light From the Upstage Side—Reverse Key
      2. Back Cross Keys
      3. Ambient Plus Accents
      4. Lighting with Practicals
      5. Lighting through the Window
      6. Available Natural Light
      7. Available Light Windows
      8. Motivated Light
      9. Carrying a Lamp
    9. Day Exteriors
      1. Fill
      2. Silks and Diffusion
      3. Open Shade and Garage Door Light
      4. Sun As Backlight
    10. Magic Hour
    11. The Same Scene Lit Seven Different Ways
  21. 14 Controlling Light
    1. Hard Light and Soft Light
    2. Scrims and Barndoors
    3. Flags, Solids, and Nets
    4. Chimeras and Snoots
      1. Softboxes
      2. Eggcrates
    5. The Window Problem
    6. Cookies, Celos, and Gobos
    7. Dimmers
      1. LED Dimmers
      2. Hand Squeezers
  22. 15 Gripology
    1. Definitions
      1. Reflectors
      2. Flags and Cutters
      3. Nets
      4. Cuculoris (Cookies)
      5. Grids and Eggcrates
      6. Open Frames
      7. Diffusers
      8. Butterflies and Overheads
    2. Holding
      1. Grip Heads and C-Stands
      2. Highboys
      3. Clamps
      4. Wall Plates, Baby Plates, and Pigeons
      5. 2K Receivers and Turtles
      6. Side Arms and Offset Arms
    3. Other Grip Gear
      1. Sandbags
      2. Apple boxes
      3. Wedges
      4. Candle Sticks
      5. Studded Chain Vise Grips
  23. 16 Camera Movement
    1. Camera Movement in Filmmaking
      1. Camera Operating
      2. Motivated vs. Unmotivated Movement
    2. Basic Technique
    3. Types Of Moves
      1. Pan
      2. Tilt
      3. Move In / Move Out
      4. Zoom
      5. Punch-in
    4. Moving Shots
      1. Tracking
      2. Countermove
      3. Reveal with Movement
      4. Circle Track Moves
      5. Crane Moves
      6. Rolling Shot
    5. Camera Supports for Movement
      1. Drones
      2. Handheld
      3. Stabilizer Rigs
      4. Camera Heads
      5. The Tripod
      6. High-Hat
      7. Rocker Plate
      8. Tilt Plate
      9. The Crab Dolly
      10. Dolly Terminology
      11. Car Shots
      12. Aerial Shots
    6. Other Types of Camera Mounts
      1. Steadicam
      2. Cable-Cam
      3. Splash Boxes
      4. Underwater Housings
    7. Motion Control
  24. 17 Optics & Focus
    1. The Physical Basis Of Optics
      1. Refraction
      2. Focal Length and Angle of View
      3. F/Stop
    2. Focus
      1. Mental Focus
      2. Circle of Confusion
    3. Depth-of-field
      1. How Not to Get More Depth-of-Field
      2. Hyperfocal Distance
      3. Nodal Points
      4. The Rear Nodal Point and Special Effects Shots
      5. Zooms and Depth-of-Field
    4. Macrophotography
    5. Exposure Compensation in Macrophotography
      1. Depth-of-Field in Close-Up Work
      2. Calculating Depth-of-Field in Close-Up Work
      3. Close-Up Tools
      4. Diopters
      5. Extension Tubes or Bellows
      6. Macro Lenses
      7. Snorkels and Innovision
      8. Specialized Lenses
    6. Lens Extenders and Filter Factors
    7. Lens Care
    8. Back Focus
  25. 18 Set Operations
    1. Making It Happen
      1. The Director of Photography
    2. The Cinematographer’s Tools
      1. Gaffer Glass
      2. Laser Pointer
      3. Director’s Viewfinder
      4. Digital Still Camera
    3. The Shot List
      1. Putting the Order Together
      2. Reading the Script
      3. Talking to the Director
      4. Location Scouts and Tech Scouts
    4. Coordinating with Other Departments
    5. The Team and The Order
      1. The Page Turn
      2. Tests
      3. Camera Crew
      4. Operator
      5. First AC Duties
      6. Second AC
      7. Loader
    6. DIT
    7. Camera Crew Reports, Equipment & Tools
      1. Camera Reports
      2. Camera Assistant Tools and Supplies
    8. AC Prep
    9. Camera Prep Checklist
    10. The Team
    11. Lighting Technicians (Electricians or Sparks)
      1. Grips
      2. Other Units
    12. Set Procedures
      1. Block, Light, Rehearse, Shoot
      2. The Process
      3. Room Tone
    13. Set Etiquette
    14. Set Safety
      1. Lighting, Electrical, and Grip
      2. Crane Safety
    15. Slating Technique
      1. Verbal Slating
      2. Tail Slate
      3. MOS Slating
      4. Slating Multiple Cameras
      5. Timecode Slates
      6. Jamming the Slate
      7. What to Write on the Slate
      8. When to Change the Letter
      9. The European System of Slating
      10. Pickups, Series, and Reshoots
      11. VFX
      12. Insert Slates
    16. Finding the Sun
  26. 19 DIT & Workflow
    1. Data Management
    2. Basic Principles
      1. Cover your Rear
      2. Standard Procedures
      3. Maintain Your Logs
    3. Procedure—Best Practices
      1. Locked and Loaded
      2. Get Your Signals Straight
      3. Always Scrub
      4. Three Drives
      5. Do Not Drag and Drop
    4. Logs
    5. File Management
    6. File Naming
    7. Download/Ingest Software
      1. ShotPut Pro
      2. Silverstack
    8. Proprietary Data Management Software
    9. External Recorders
    10. Ten Numbers: ASC-CDL
      1. Goodbye, Knobs
      2. Primary Correction Only
      3. SOP and S
    11. ACES: What It Is, What It Does
      1. AMPAS and ACES
      2. The Stages
      3. ACES Terminology
  27. 20 Power & Distro
    1. Measurement of Electricity
      1. Potential
      2. Paper Amps
    2. Electrical Supply Systems
      1. Single-phase
      2. Three-phase
    3. Power Sources
      1. Stage Service
      2. Generators
    4. Large Generator Operation
    5. Guidelines for Running Small Generators
      1. Paralleling Small Generators
    6. Tie-ins
      1. Tie-in Safety
    7. Determining KVA
    8. Wall Plugging
    9. Load Calculations and Paper Amps
      1. Ampacity
      2. Color Coding
    10. The Neutral
    11. Distribution Equipment
      1. Tie-in Clamps
      2. Busbar Lugs
      3. Connectors
      4. Bull Switches
      5. Feeder Cable
    12. Distribution Boxes
      1. Lunch Boxes, Snake Bites, and Gangboxes
      2. Extensions (Stingers)
      3. Zip Extensions
    13. Planning a Distribution System
      1. Balancing the Load
    14. Calculating Voltage Drop
    15. Electrical Safety
      1. Wet Work
      2. HMI Safety
      3. Grounding Safety
      4. GFCI
  28. 21 Technical Issues
    1. Shooting Greenscreen/Bluescreen
      1. Lighting for Greenscreen/Bluescreen
    2. Dimmers
      1. Dimming LEDs
      2. Dimmer Boards
      3. Working with Strobes
    3. High-Speed Photography
    4. Lighting For Extreme Close-Up
    5. Effects
      1. Smoke
      2. Fire
      3. TV and Projector Effects
      4. Day-for-Night
      5. Moonlight Effect
      6. Water EFX
      7. Rain
    6. Lightning
    7. Gunshots and Explosions
    8. Time-Lapse Photography
      1. Time Slicing
      2. Transferring Film To Video
    9. Flicker
    10. Shooting Virtual Reality
    11. Dealing with Audio
      1. Double System vs. Single System Sound
      2. Lock It Up!
    12. Microphones
      1. Mic on the Camera? No!
      2. Directional Mics
      3. Shotgun Mics
      4. Mic Mounts
      5. Wireless Lavs
    13. Phantom Power
      1. Mic vs. Line Input
    14. Audio Basics
      1. Rule #1
      2. Rule #2
    15. Scratch Track
      1. Wild Track
      2. Foley
      3. Room Tone
    16. ADR Is Expensive
    17. Shooting To Playback
    18. Timecode Slate
  29. Backmatter
    1. Dedication
    2. About the Author
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. About the Website
  30. Bibliography
  31. Index

Product information

  • Title: Cinematography: Theory and Practice, 4th Edition
  • Author(s): Blain Brown
  • Release date: September 2021
  • Publisher(s): Routledge
  • ISBN: 9781000433753