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# Number Systems

## 8.1 Introduction

In everyday life, we use the decimal number system (base, or radix, 10), which allows the creation of numbers with digits in the set: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. The ten possible digits are combined to create integer and real numbers. However, base 10 is not the only number system. Digital circuits and systems use the binary (base, or radix, 2) number system, which allows for the creation of numbers with digits in the set: 0, 1.

The 0 and 1 numbers are logic levels (0 = logic 0, 1 = logic 1), which are created by voltages in a circuit:

• In positive logic, 0 is formed by a low voltage level, and 1 is formed by a high voltage level.

• In negative logic, 0 is formed by a high voltage level, and 1 ...

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