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CISA® Certified Information Systems Auditor®: Study Guide, Third Edition by David Cannon

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Understanding Physical Network Design

The first computer networks were created by connecting serial ports between two or more computers. This primitive design used modem software to handle file transfer between systems.

Networks evolved with the invention of token passing and broadcast transmissions. The invention of the hub, or shared media access unit, created the opportunity to connect multiple computers together on the same segment (again, referred to as a subnet). The concept of a network bridge was created to connect two subnets into the same, single subnet. A layer 2 bridge allows all traffic to pass from one side to the next. The bridge could be configured to allow broadcast across it or configured to filter broadcasts and reduce noise—it ...

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