Now let’s discuss another (indirectly related) predicament in securing DNS traffic—that is, the manipulation of the HOSTS file, a technique frequently used by malware. The HOSTS file is used by the operating system to map hostnames to IP addresses as described before. The HOSTS file is a plaintext file located in the %systemroot%\system32\i386\drivers\etc/ folder in Windows and at /etc/hosts in UNIX/Linux systems. The file simply consists of a list of IP addresses with their corresponding hostnames.

Get CISSP All-in-One Exam Guide, 6th Edition, 6th Edition now with O’Reilly online learning.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from 200+ publishers.