Access is a flow of information between a subject and an object.
A subject is an active entity that requests access to an object, which is a passive entity.
A subject can be a user, program, or process.
Confidentiality is the assurance that information is not disclosed to unauthorized subjects.
Some security mechanisms that provide confidentiality are encryption, logical and physical access control, transmission protocols, database views, and controlled traffic flow.
Identity management solutions include directories, web access management, password management, legacy single sign-on, account management, and profile update.
Password synchronization reduces the complexity of keeping up with different passwords for different systems.