Quick Tips

  • Two systems can have the exact same hardware, software components, and applications, but provide different levels of protection because of the different security policies and security models the two systems were built upon.

  • A CPU contains a control unit, which controls the timing of the execution of instructions and data, and an ALU, which performs mathematical functions and logical operations.

  • Most systems use protection rings. The more privileged processes run in the lower-numbered rings and have access to all or most of the system resources. Applications run in higher-numbered rings and have access to a smaller amount of resources.

  • Operating system processes are executed in privileged or supervisor mode, and applications are executed ...

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