Quick Tips

  • Dual-homed firewalls can be compromised if the operating system does not have packet forwarding or routing disabled.

  • A protocol is a set of rules that dictates how computers communicate over networks.

  • The application layer, layer 7, has services and protocols required by the user’s applications for networking functionality.

  • The presentation layer, layer 6, formats data into a standardized format and deals with the syntax of the data, not the meaning.

  • Routers work at the network layer, layer 3.

  • The session layer, layer 5, sets up, maintains, and breaks down the dialog (session) between two applications. It controls the dialog organization and synchronization.

  • The transport layer, layer 4, provides end-to-end transmissions.

  • The network layer, ...

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