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Climate Change by Kaufaui Vincent Wong

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Chapter 8

Freshwater Dischargesinto the Oceans

8.1 Background

Under non-time-dependent analyses, the precipitation P exceeds the evaporation or evapotranspiration E over land. The remaining water runs off the land and accounts for the continental freshwater discharge into the oceans. When one considers the oceans, the resultant freshwater transfer into the air above is balanced by the water runoff from the land and transfers between regions in the oceans. The excess of E over P over the oceans is transferred over the land and precipitated as rain, dew, snow, ice diamonds, and so on thereby completing the land–ocean water cycle. While E and P changes depending on the location, the runoff from the land into the oceans is mostly taking place at ...

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