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Cloud Computing by James F. Ransome, John W. Rittinghouse

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57
Chapter 3
Building Cloud Networks
3.1 Chapter Overview
In previous chapters we have explained what cloud computing is. In this
chapter, we will describe what it takes to build a cloud network. You will
learn how and why companies build these highly automated private cloud
networks providing resources that can be managed from a single point. We
will discuss the significant reliance of cloud computing architectures on
server and storage virtualization as a layer between applications and distrib-
uted computing resources. You will learn the basics of how flexible cloud
computing networks such as those modeled after public providers such as
Google and Amazon are built, and how they interconnect with corporate IT
private clouds designed as service-oriented architectures (SOAs). We pro-
vide an overview of how SOA is used as an intermediary step for cloud com-
puting and the basic approach to SOA as it applies to data center design. We
then describe the role and use of open source software in data centers. The
use and importance of collaboration technologies in cloud computing archi-
tectures is also discussed. Last and most important, you will gain an under-
standing of how the engine of cloud computing will drive the future of
infrastructure and operations design.
Ten years ago, no one could have predicted that the cloud (both hard-
ware and software) would become the next big thing in the computing
world. IT automation has evolved out of business needs expressed by cus-
tomers to infrastructure management and administrators. There has never
been a grand unified plan to automate the IT industry. Each provider,
responding to the needs of individual customers, has been busily building
technology solutions to handle repetitive tasks, respond to events, and pro-
duce predictable outcomes given certain conditions. All the while this evo-
lutionary process was occurring, it was presumed that the cost of not doing
it would be higher than just getting it done.
1
The solutions provided to
Chap3.fm Page 57 Friday, May 22, 2009 11:25 AM
58 Cloud Computing
meet customer needs involved both hardware and software innovation and,
as those solutions emerged, they gave rise to another generation of innova-
tion, improving on the foundation before it. Thus the effects of Moores
law
2
seem to prevail even for cloud evolution.
From the military use of TCP/IP in the 1960s and 1970s to the devel-
opment and emergence of the browser on the Internet in the late 1980s and
early 1990s, we have witnessed growth at a rate similar to what Gordon
Moore had predicted in 1965: essentially, a doubling of capability approxi-
mately every two years. We saw the emergence of network security in the
mid/late 1990s (again, as a response to a need), and we saw the birth of per-
formance and traffic optimization in the late 1990s/early 2000s, as the
growth of the Internet necessitated optimization and higher-performance
solutions. According to Greg Ness, the result has been “a renaissance of sorts
in the network hardware industry, as enterprises installed successive founda-
tions of specialized gear dedicated to the secure and efficient transport of an
ever increasing population of packets, protocols and services.”
3
Welcome to
the world that has been called Infrastructure1.0 (I-1.0).
The evolution of the basic entity we call I-1.0
is precisely the niche area
that made successful companies such as Cisco, F5 Networks, Juniper, and
Riverbed. I-1.0 established and maintained routes of connectivity between a
globally scaled user base constantly deploying increasingly powerful and
ever more capable network devices. I-1.0’s impact on productivity and com-
merce have been as important to civilization as the development of trans-
oceanic shipping, paved roads, railway systems, electricity, and air travel. I-
1.0 has created and shifted wealth and accelerated technological advance-
ment on a huge number of fronts in countless fields of endeavor. There sim-
ply has been no historical precedent to match the impact that I-1.0 has had
on our world. However, at this point in its evolution, the greatest threat to
the I-1.0 world is the advent of even greater factors of change and complex-
ity as technology continues to evolve. What once was an almost exclusive
domain of firmware and hardware has now evolved to require much more
intelligent and sophisticated software necessary for interfacing with, admin-
istering, configuring, and managing that hardware. By providing such
sophisticated interfaces to firmware/hardware-configured devices, it marked
1. James Urquhart, http://blogs.cisco.com/datacenter/comments/
the_network_the_final_frontier_for_cloud_computing, retrieved 5 Feb 09.
2. http://www.intel.com/technology/mooreslaw/index.htm, retrieved 6 Feb 09.
3. Greg Ness, http://gregness.wordpress.com/2008/10/13/clouds-networks-and-recessions,
retrieved 5 Feb 09.
Chap3.fm Page 58 Friday, May 22, 2009 11:25 AM

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