Sigma-Delta modulators (Ms) have become one of the best choices for the implementation of analog/digital interfaces integrated in CMOS technologies. Compared to other kinds of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), Ms cover the widest conversion region of the resolution-versus-bandwidth plane, being the most efficient solution to digitize very diverse types of signals in an increasing number of application scenarios, which span from high-resolution low-bandwidth data conversion (like digital audio, sensor interfaces, and instrumentation) to ultra-low power biomedical systems and medium-resolution broadband wireless communications. This versatility, together with their robustness and their simplicity in many practical situations, has motivated that more and more engineers today consider Ms as a first choice for their research projects and their industrial products.

The first idea underlying the operation of Ms was patented by Cutler in 1960 [1], although its application to the construction of data converters was first reported in the published literature by Inose et al in 1962 [2]. ...

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