3.3. Innovative Submerged Structures

3.3.1. Introduction

Among all the alternatives developed worldwide for coastal defense, those that have found best acceptance in recent years are the more environmentally friendly designs. Moreover, if the aesthetic impact is also considered (e.g., touristic industry), submerged structures, also known as reef breakwaters, seem to be a very profitable option regarding overall costs and construction time (Burcharth, Hawkins, Zanuttigh, & Lamberti, 2007Ranasinghe, Larson, & Savioli, 2010). The construction of this type of structure effects a reduction of onshore wave energy to landward. This may be desirable to prevent coastal erosion, to protect land and infrastructure from flooding, to protect from damage or ...

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