3.4. Overtopping Resistance of Grass-covered Landward Slopes of Dikes
Both breakwaters and dikes are subject to climate change as water levels rise and wave climate may worsen. This section only handles measures on grass covered crests and landward slopes of dikes. The protection of the outer or seaward slope is not dealt with in this section.
Given the anticipated sea-level rise, thousands of kilometers of coastal dikes in Europe will be exposed to waves with heights exceeding the original design heights This is in particular true for all structures built in shallow waters, where the limited water depth imposes a maximum wave height because of wave breaking. In addition, sea-level rise results in higher waves, which will lead ...