Saltmarshes are vegetated areas in the upper part of the intertidal zone at the interface between the marine and terrestrial biome (Figure 4.3
, Allen, 2000
). They consist of a limited range of salt and flood tolerant vegetation species. Those at the seaward margin are most tolerant of physiological stress from inundation with saline water and disturbance from waves and tidal currents. In the low marsh areas, positive interactions (“facilitation”) within and among species are predominant (Bertness & Ellison, 1987
). These interactions often ameliorate physical–chemical stresses, thereby allowing species from the higher marsh to extend downward. Higher in the marsh competition among species can ...