The beach dune habitat provides many ecosystem services, but is vulnerable to the effects of climate change human impacts (Schlacher et al., 2012
). Currently, the majority of beaches around the world are classified as eroding (Bird, 2000
) and sea-level rise and increased intensity of storms from climate change will accelerate beach erosion and retreat inland (Nordstrom, 2000
). Sandy shores are particularly vulnerable to climate driven changes, particularly sea-level rise, changes in wave regime and storm intensity and frequency, and alterations to the sediment budget. They are among the most intensively used coastal ecosystems and this will likely increase in the future. ...