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Coastal Risk Management in a Changing Climate by Hans Falk Burcharth, Richard C. Thompson, Jean-Paul Vanderlinden, Robert J. Nicholls, Barbara Zanuttigh

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4.4. Management of Biogenic Reefs

4.4.1. Background

Biogenic reefs are created by living organisms when their shells either concreate together (e.g., oysters and serpulid worms), bind together by byssus threads (e.g., mussels), or when worms creating tubes with sand grains that form colonies (e.g., Sabellaria spp.), or by calcareous encrusting algae. These reef-building species can be considered bioengineering species or ecosystem engineers (Padilla, 2010). Generally, reefs are resilient and, in the case of Sabellaria, mussel or oyster reefs they can occur in naturally disturbed areas at the interface of sandy beaches and rocky reefs. The major reef-forming species in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea are the native oyster Ostrea edulis ...

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