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Coastal Risk Management in a Changing Climate by Hans Falk Burcharth, Richard C. Thompson, Jean-Paul Vanderlinden, Robert J. Nicholls, Barbara Zanuttigh

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4.6. Ecological Design Considerations for Hard Structures

This section considers how the ecological outcomes of various coastal defense structures including offshore breakwaters, shore-perpendicular structures including groins and seawalls, and to a lesser extent wave energy converters (WECs) can be modified via alterations to design to achieve desired ecological outcomes. Potential modifications are described at a range of scales from small changes in surface rugosity at a scale of millimeters to centimeters or the addition of pools at a scale of 10s of cm to meters, to the design of whole structures or wider schemes on scales of 10–1000s of meters. Evidence of changes in the diversity and abundance of species in relation to various levels of ...

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