4.7. Interaction of Multiple Stressors in the Coastal Zone

A significant proportion of the seashore has been altered for human use; thus, many native shallow habitats have been turned into artificial ones or are impacted by development and changes in sediment dynamics that increase erosion (Dugan et al., 2011). When coupled with climatic-driven changes, these cumulative anthropogenic perturbations will increasingly affect the stability, resilience, and productivity of ecosystems (Claudet & Fraschetti, 2010). Local habitat modification (10–100 m) and loss can also scale up to have broader scale implications on the ecological landscape (km) in extreme cases such as the Northern Adriatic to the regional scale (100–1000 km). Such changes in regime ...

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