*The secret of being boring is to say everything.*

—Voltaire

For notational conventions please refer to page 168.

Definition I. A **finite structure** is a pair such that:

- is a set of primitive elements or
**entities of dimension***0*called the**universe***of* - is a finite set of relations (Definition II)

Definition II. A **unary** (**binary**) **relation** is a set of *1*-tuples [*2*-tuples, or *pairs*] of entities of dimension *0*. A **class** (**method**, **signature**) **of dimension** *0* is an entity in the relation *Class* (*Method*, *Signature*). A **class** (**method, signature**) **of dimension** *d* is a set of classes (methods, signatures) of dimension *d – 1*.

Definition III. Given a binary relation *BinaryRelation*, the **transitive closure** of *BinaryRelation*, written *BinaryRelation*^{+}, is that set of pairs *x*, *y* such that at least one of the following conditions hold:

*x*,*y*∈*BinaryRelation*- There exists an element
*z*in ...

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