Chapter 49

Coffee-Induced Neural Tube Defects

Gianfranco Carlomagno1,3, Sara De Grazia1,3, Alberto Vaiarelli2,  and Vittorio Unfer1     1A.G.UN.CO. Obstetrics and Gynecology Center, Rome, Italy     2Reproductive Medicine Unit, University Hospital, Messina, Italy     3R&D Dept. LO.LI Pharma s.r.l, Rome, Italy


The association between caffeine intake and various reproductive problems and developmental malformations has been widely reported, and although a clear consensus has not been reached, several studies correlate its use to many negative effects.

Caffeine intake has been listed among the risk factors for developing neural tube defects (NTDs), a congenital malformation characterized by a multifactorial etiology in which genetic, environmental, ...

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