9.5. Practical Carbonaceous Fuels (C. R. Shaddix)

Solid carbonaceous fuels such as coal, biomass, and petroleum coke are widely used throughout the world to provide heat and to generate electrical power through combustion processes. These fuels are generally classified according to their heating value (energy content), volatile fuel content, fixed carbon content, moisture level, and ash or mineral content. The volatile fuel content is the fraction of the original fuel mass that evolves as gases when the fuel is heated to high temperatures, whereas the fixed carbon is the mass of carbon that remains after the volatiles have escaped. The ash content refers to the portion of the solid that remains when the fixed carbon has been fully oxidized, leaving ...

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