First, I must thank two guys named John. In 1989 I picked up John Towsen’s book Clowns in a library, and his descriptions of the history of physical comedy opened my eyes to the connections with animated characters. It was the beginning of this journey, and I am glad to have him as a personal friend. I was also very fortunate to have had animator and animation historian John Canemaker as my professor at New York University. In the years since I earned my degree he has continued to be an inspiration and a mentor.

At Focal Press I must thank Lauren Mattos who contacted me and initiated the entire project. She can’t imagine how important this has been to me. Haley Swan took over for Lauren, and did all the hard work involved ...

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