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Commercial Airplane Design Principles

Book Description

Commercial Airplane Design Principles is a succinct, focused text covering all the information required at the preliminary stage of aircraft design:  initial sizing and weight estimation, fuselage design, engine selection, aerodynamic analysis, stability and control, drag estimation, performance analysis, and economic analysis.

The text places emphasis on making informed choices from an array of competing options, and developing the confidence to do so.

  • Shows the use of standard, empirical, and classical methods in support of the design process
  • Explains the preparation of a professional quality design report
  • Provides a sample outline of a design report
  • Can be used in conjunction with Sforza, Commercial Aircraft Design Principles to form a complete course in Aircraft/Spacecraft Design

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface
  6. Introduction and Outline of an Airplane Design Report
  7. 1: Market Survey and Mission Specification
    1. 1.1 A growing market for commercial aircraft
    2. 1.2 Technology drivers
    3. 1.3 Cargo aircraft
    4. 1.4 Design summary
  8. 2: Preliminary Weight Estimation
    1. 2.1 The mission specification
    2. 2.2 The mission profile
    3. 2.3 Weight components
    4. 2.4 Empty weight trends
    5. 2.5 Fuel characteristics
    6. 2.6 Estimation of the takeoff and empty weights
    7. 2.7 Weight estimation for turboprop-powered aircraft
    8. 2.8 Design summary
    9. 2.9 Nomenclature
  9. 3: Fuselage Design
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Commercial aircraft cabin volume and pressure
    3. 3.3 General cabin layout
    4. 3.4 Cabin cross-section
    5. 3.5 Estimation of fuselage width
    6. 3.6 Estimation of fuselage length
    7. 3.7 Influence of fuselage fineness ratio
    8. 3.8 Estimation of nose cone and tail cone length
    9. 3.9 Cargo containers
    10. 3.10 Emergency exits
    11. 3.11 Recent developments in fuselage design
    12. 3.12 Design summary
    13. 3.13 Nomenclature
  10. 4: Engine Selection
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Landing requirements
    3. 4.3 Wing loading in landing
    4. 4.4 Landing field length
    5. 4.5 Wing loading in takeoff
    6. 4.6 Takeoff distance
    7. 4.7 Cruise requirements
    8. 4.8 Construction of the engine selection design chart
    9. 4.9 Flight test data for landing and power approach
    10. 4.10 Turbojet and turbofan engines
    11. 4.11 Turboprops
    12. 4.12 Engine-out operation and balanced field length
    13. 4.13 Design summary
    14. 4.14 Nomenclature
  11. 5: Wing Design
    1. 5.1 General wing planform characteristics
    2. 5.2 General airfoil characteristics
    3. 5.3 Lifting characteristics of the wing
    4. 5.4 Determination of wing maximum lift in the cruise configuration
    5. 5.5 High lift devices
    6. 5.6 Determination of CL,max for the wing in takeoff and landing configurations
    7. 5.7 Development and layout of the preliminary wing design
    8. 5.8 Design summary
    9. 5.9 Nomenclature
  12. 6: Tail Design
    1. 6.1 Preliminary tail design
    2. 6.2 Refined horizontal tail design
    3. 6.3 Refined vertical tail design
    4. 6.4 Design summary
    5. 6.5 Nomenclature
  13. 7: Landing Gear Design
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 General characteristics of commercial jet transport landing gear
    3. 7.3 Aircraft tires and wheels
    4. 7.4 Shock absorbing landing gear struts
    5. 7.5 Landing gear brake systems
    6. 7.6 Landing gear retraction
    7. 7.7 Design summary
    8. 7.8 Nomenclature
  14. 8: Refined Weight and Balance Estimate
    1. 8.1 Process for refining the weight estimate
    2. 8.2 Limit load factor
    3. 8.3 The design dive speed
    4. 8.4 Wing group weight
    5. 8.5 Fuselage group weight
    6. 8.6 Landing gear group weight
    7. 8.7 Tail group weight
    8. 8.8 Propulsion group weight
    9. 8.9 Nacelle group weight
    10. 8.10 Flight controls group weight
    11. 8.11 Auxiliary power unit group weight
    12. 8.12 Instrument group weight
    13. 8.13 Hydraulic and pneumatic group weight
    14. 8.14 Electrical group weight
    15. 8.15 Avionics group weight
    16. 8.16 Equipment and furnishing group weight
    17. 8.17 Air conditioning and anti-icing group weight
    18. 8.18 Wing group center of gravity
    19. 8.19 Fuselage group center of gravity
    20. 8.20 Landing gear group center of gravity
    21. 8.21 Tail group center of gravity
    22. 8.22 Propulsion group center of gravity
    23. 8.23 Aircraft center of gravity
    24. 8.24 Design summary
    25. 8.25 Nomenclature
  15. 9: Drag Estimation
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Skin friction drag
    3. 9.3 Form drag
    4. 9.4 Drag build-up by components
    5. 9.5 Wing and tail drag
    6. 9.6 Fuselage drag
    7. 9.7 Nacelle and pylon drag
    8. 9.8 Landing gear drag
    9. 9.9 Flap and slat drag
    10. 9.10 Other drag sources
    11. 9.11 Calculation of the zero-lift drag coefficient neglecting wave drag
    12. 9.12 Compressibility drag at high subsonic and low transonic speeds
    13. 9.13 The area rule
    14. 9.14 Calculation of the wave drag coefficient
    15. 9.15 Effects of sweepback
    16. 9.16 The drag coefficient of the airplane
    17. 9.17 Thrust available and thrust required
    18. 9.18 Design summary
    19. 9.19 Nomenclature
  16. 10: Aircraft Performance
    1. 10.1 The range equation
    2. 10.2 Takeoff performance
    3. 10.3 Climb
    4. 10.4 Descent
    5. 10.5 Landing
    6. 10.6 Turboprop-powered aircraft
    7. 10.7 The air data system
    8. 10.8 Design summary
    9. 10.9 Nomenclature
  17. 11: Aircraft Pricing and Economic Analysis
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Capital cost
    3. 11.3 Direct operating cost
    4. 11.4 Indirect operating cost
    5. 11.5 Breakeven load factor
    6. 11.6 Design project activity
    7. 11.7 Nomenclature
  18. Appendix A: Airfoil Characteristics
  19. Appendix B: 1976 US Standard Atmosphere Model
  20. Appendix C: Airfoil and Wing Theory and Analysis
  21. Appendix D: Graphs of Critical Mach Number
  22. Appendix E: Units and Conversion Factors
  23. Appendix F: General Database for Commercial Aircraft
  24. Index