Chapter 4

Data Representation


This chapter discusses the ways data can be represented in order to facilitate its interpretation and visualization. The chapter is divided into two sections: basic representation and advanced representation. The first section includes a discussion of the basic data types; representation, comparison and processing of different types of variables; visualization methods; and normalization, distributions, atypical values, and outliers. Visualization methods include pie charts, histograms, graph plots, and radar diagrams. The advanced data representation section discusses higher level ways of representing data, which are required for some special types of data and data that has a more complex structure. The section ...

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