Appendix GCommon Appraisal Errors1

Contrast Effect

Tendency to evaluate people in comparison with other people, rather than against the standards for the job.

First Impression Error

Tendency to make an initial positive or negative judgment and allow that first impression to distort later information.

Halo/Horns Effect

Generalizations from one aspect of an individual’s performance to all areas of the person’s performance.

Similar-to-Me Effect

Tendency to rate people more similar to them more highly than others.

Central Tendency

Tendency to rate people in the middle of the scale even when their performance justifies a higher or lower rating.

Negative and Positive Skew

Tendency to rate people higher or lower than their actual performance. ...

Get Competency-Based Performance Reviews now with the O’Reilly learning platform.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from nearly 200 publishers.