1.1 Languages

If you think a little about how our world operates, you will realize that animate and inanimate objects interact by sending messages to one another. These messages take various forms. For example, a honeybee communicates the location of a source of juices to other honeybees by a kind of “dance”. We human beings “talk” with one another or send written or electronic messages. You “talk” to (as distinct from via) your mobile phone by pressing various buttons and reading the display. In that case, your pressing the phone buttons is called commands or requests, but still, in a general sense they are messages.

All messages are expressed in some language, and usually there is a protocol (rules of communicating) for any situation where ...

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