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Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids, 7th Edition

Book Description

Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids, Seventh Edition, delivers the most up-to-date information on drilling fluid choices and techniques. Long considered the mud bible for the oil and gas professional for over 60 years, this revised reference presents the service provider and operator with full disclosure on the many drilling and completion fluid chemistries available so that all parties are aware of not only their options prior to well selection, but also the latest environmental regulations and limitations of usage.

New additions to the edition include a completely revised chapter on the introduction to drilling fluids, updated information on the evaluation of drilling fluids, common drilling challenges, and an entirely new chapter devoted to fracturing to meet today’s market needs for the new and veteran oil and gas professional.

The book remains the critical resource for making the best chemical and process flow selections when drilling and completing today’s more complex oil and gas wells.

  • Updated and reorganized with completely new material on all fracturing fluids, evaluation techniques, and drilling waste management
  • Defined as the mud bible since its first publication in 1948
  • Upgraded with the newest references and regulations necessary to ensure safe and sustainable working conditions for the well and rig personnel

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
  7. Chapter 1. Introduction to Drilling Fluids
    1. Abstract
    2. Functions of Drilling Fluids
    3. Composition of Drilling Fluids
    4. Properties of Drilling Fluids
    5. Drilling Fluid Selection
    6. References
  8. Chapter 2. Introduction to Completion Fluids
    1. Abstract
    2. Completion Fluid Selection
    3. Wellbore Cleanout
    4. Composition of Completion Fluids
    5. Brine Test Procedures
    6. References
  9. Chapter 3. Evaluating Drilling Fluid Performance
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. LAB Sample Preparation
    4. Properties Measured
    5. Determination of Gas, Oil, and Solids Content
    6. Electrical Properties
    7. Lubricity
    8. Differential-Pressure Sticking Test
    9. Corrosion Tests
    10. Flocculants
    11. Foams and Foaming Agents
    12. Aniline Point
    13. Chemical Analysis
    14. Evaluation of Drilling Fluid Materials
    15. Aging at High Temperature
    16. References
  10. Chapter 4. Clay Mineralogy and the Colloid Chemistry of Drilling Fluids
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Characteristics of Colloidal Systems
    4. Clay Mineralogy
    5. Origin and Occurrence of Clay Minerals
    6. Ion Exchange
    7. Clay Swelling Mechanisms
    8. The Electrostatic Double Layer
    9. Particle Association
    10. The Mechanism of Gelation
    11. Polymers
    12. References
  11. Chapter 5. Water-Dispersible Polymers
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Polymer Classification
    4. Types of Polymers
    5. Guar Gum
    6. Starch
    7. Fermentation Biopolymers
    8. Cellulosics
    9. Synthetics
    10. References
  12. Chapter 6. The Rheology of Drilling Fluids
    1. Abstract
    2. Laminar Flow Regime
    3. The Bingham Plastic Flow Model
    4. The Concentric Cylinder Rotary Viscometer
    5. Behavior of Drilling Fluids at Low Shear Rates
    6. The Effect of Thixotropy on Drilling Muds
    7. Pseudoplastic Fluids
    8. The Generalized Power Law
    9. Turbulent Flow Regime
    10. Friction Reducers
    11. Influence of Temperature and Pressure on the Rheology of Drilling Fluids
    12. Application of Flow Equations to Conditions in the Drilling Well
    13. Rheological Properties Required for Optimum Performance
    14. Practical Drilling Fluid Rheology
    15. Notation
    16. References
  13. Chapter 7. The Filtration Properties of Drilling Fluids
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Static Filtration
    4. The Filter Cake
    5. Dynamic Filtration
    6. Filtration in the Borehole
    7. Notation
    8. References
  14. Chapter 8. The Surface Chemistry of Drilling Fluids
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Surface Tension
    4. Wettability
    5. Surface Free Energy
    6. Adhesion
    7. Surfactants
    8. Emulsions
    9. Oil-Wetting Agents
    10. Foams
    11. Defoamers
    12. Notation
    13. References
  15. Chapter 9. Wellbore Stability
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. The Mechanics of Borehole Stability
    4. Hole Instability Caused by Interaction Between the Drilling Fluid and Shale Formations
    5. Notation
    6. References
  16. Chapter 10. Drilling Problems Related to Drilling Fluids
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Drill String Torque and Drag
    4. Differential Sticking of the Drill String
    5. Slow Drilling Rate
    6. Loss of Circulation
    7. Wellbore Strengthening
    8. High Temperatures
    9. Corrosion of Drill Pipe
    10. Notation
    11. References
  17. Chapter 11. Completion, Workover, Packer, and Reservoir Drilling Fluids
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Expense Versus Value
    4. The Skin Effect
    5. Prevention of Formation Damage
    6. Selection of Completion and Workover Fluids
    7. Tests for Potential Formation Damage by Completion Fluids
    8. Packer Fluids and Casing Packs
    9. Reservoir Drilling Fluids
    10. Formate Brines
    11. References
  18. Chapter 12. Introduction to Fracturing Fluids
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Fracturing Fluid Types
    4. Fracturing Fluids Composition
    5. Selecting a Fracturing Fluid System
    6. Additives
    7. References
  19. Chapter 13. Drilling Fluid Components
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Summary of Additives
    4. Weighting Agents
    5. Manganese Tetroxide
    6. Viscosity Modifiers
    7. Lost Circulation Additives
    8. Lubricants
    9. Ethers and Esters
    10. Clay and Shale Stabilizers
    11. Formation Damage Prevention
    12. Surfactants
    13. Emulsifiers
    14. Invert Emulsions
    15. Aphrons
    16. Low-Fluorescent Emulsifiers
    17. Bacteria Control
    18. Corrosion Inhibitors
    19. Oxygen Scavenger
    20. Hydrogen Sulfide Removal
    21. Special Additives for Water-Based Drilling Muds
    22. Synthetic Polymers
    23. Special Additives for Nonaqueous Drilling Muds
    24. Mud to Cement Conversion
    25. References
  20. Chapter 14. Drilling and Drilling Fluids Waste Management
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Drilling Wastes
    4. Minimizing Waste Problems
    5. Waste Disposal Options
    6. Slurry Fracture Injection
    7. Offshore Waste Disposal for NADFs
    8. Offshore Discharge
    9. Onshore Disposal
    10. Evaluation of Fate and Effects of Drill Cuttings Discharge
    11. Benthic Impacts and Recovery
    12. Biodegradation and Organic Enrichment
    13. Chemical Toxicity and Bioaccumulation
    14. Recovery
    15. Laboratory Studies
    16. Characterization of NADF Biodegradability
    17. OGP Document Conclusions
    18. Waste Reduction and Recycling
    19. Prototype Small Footprint Drilling Rig
    20. Disappearing Roads
    21. NOx Air Emissions Studies
    22. Drilling Waste Management Website
    23. New Product R&D
    24. References
    25. US Waste Regulation Bibliography
  21. Appendix A. Conversion Factors
  22. Appendix B. Abbreviations
  23. Appendix C. The Development of Drilling Fluids Technology
    1. Introduction
    2. Water-Based Drilling Fluids Technology
    3. Oil-Based Drilling Fluids Technology
    4. Gas-Based Drilling Fluids Technology
    5. References
  24. Author Index
  25. Subject Index