Introduction to Fracturing Fluids
This chapter covers the advances in fracturing fluids formulations and additives. The first fracturing fluid was “1000 gallons of naphthenic-acid and palm-oil- (napalm-) thickened gasoline” … “and sand from the Arkansas River.” Since then a number of fluid systems have been developed. This chapter covers the differences among these various systems. The various additives used in these fluid systems are discussed, covering why they are used, and their advantages and disadvantages.
Fracturing fluids; slickwater; guar gels; linear gels; cross-linked fracture gels; energized fluids; VES; viscoelastic surfactants; synthetic polymers. Acid fracturing fluids; methanol fracturing fluids